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Distal-triangular flap design for impacted mandibular third molars: a randomized controlled trial
Liu Jiyuan, Liu Chang, Pan Jian, Qu Tao, Hua Chengge.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 598-604.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.016
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Objective

This prospective study was performed to evaluate whether the distal-triangular flap was a practical alternative surgical approach for extracting mandibular third molars.

Methods

Sixty participants with impacted mandibular third molars were randomly divided into three groups: group A, distal-triangular flap; group B, Szmyd flap; and group C, envelope flap. The impacted third molars were extracted by the corresponding flapping method. During a three-month follow-up observation after the extraction, the postoperative pain, swelling, mouth opening, and periodontal status were recorded and analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square tests.

Results

The 60 participants had successful extraction and 3-month follow-up observation. No participant suffered from postoperative infections, lower lip disorder, or tongue sensory disorders. No statistical differences were found in the postoperative symptoms and signs of the three flap designs, such as postoperative pain, swelling, mouth opening, and periodontal status (P>0.05).

Conclusion

The distal-triangular flap was as safe and reliable as the Szmyd and envelope flaps but more advantageous because of its convenient operative field exposure and low requirement for the patient's mouth opening. Thus, the distal-triangular flap is one of the alternative flap options for extracting impacted mandibular third molars.

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China experts' consensus on preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatments of malocclusions of children
Li Xiaobing, Ye Quanfu, He Hong, Lu Haiping, Zhu Min, Jiang Ruoping, Zou Shujuan, Han Xianglong, Zhou Li, Chen Ke, Yuan Xiao, Zhang Junmei, Tan Lijun, Yin Chang, He Zhou, Li Ang, Cheng Bin, Ruan Wenhua, Huang Fang, Liu Juan, Ma Lan, Zou Rui, Yang Fang, Zhang Weibing, Tian Yulou, Jiang Beizhan, Shao Linqin, Huang Yang, Tang Liqin, Gao Li, Zhou Chenchen
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 369-376.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.001
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Malocclusion is one of the three most common oral diseases reported by World Health Organization(WHO). In China, its incidence rate is rising. Malocclusion seriously affects the dental and maxillofacial function, facial appearance and growth development of nearly 260 million children in China, and what is more, it affects their physical and mental health development. Malocclusion occurrence is related to genetic and environmental factors. Early treatment of malocclusion can create a good dental and maxillofacial development environment, correct abnormal growth and control the adverse effects of abnormal genetic factors. It can effectively reduce the prevalence of children's malocclusion and enhance their physical and mental health. This is an urgent need from the economic perspective of our society, so it has great practical and social significance. Experts from the project group “standard diagnose and treatment protocols for early orthodontic intervention of malocclusions of children” which initiated by China National Health Institute of Hospital Administration wrote the “China Experts' Consensus on Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontic Treatments of Malocclusions of Children”, which aims to guide and popularize the clinical practice, improve the clinical theory and practice level, and accelerate the disciplinary development of early treatment of children's malocclusion in China. The consensus elaborates the harmfulness of malocclusion and the necessity of early treatment, and brings up the principles and fundamental contents. Based on the law of dental and maxillofacial development, this paper puts forward the guiding suggestions of preventive and interceptive treatments in different stages of dental development ranging from fetus to early permanent dentition. It is a systematic project to promote and standardize the early treatment of malocclusion. Through scientific and comprehensive stratified clinical practice and professional training, the clinical system of early treatment of malocclusion in China will eventually be perfected, so as to comprehensively care for children's dental and maxillofacial health, and improve their oral and physical health in China.

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New diagnostic classification of cheilitis and its clinical diagnostic pathway
Qiu Xuemei, Jiang Lu
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 238-244.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.019
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Cheilitis is a general term for various types of inflammatory diseases that occur on the lips. The etiology differs and the clinical manifestations and pathological features overlap, leading to difficulties in clinical diagnosis. Reasonable classification is conducive to the diagnosis of cheilitis. However, its classification is difficult because of its cha-racteristics. At present, scholars have proposed two different classification schemes, but a unified classification standard has not yet been established. We classified cheilitis based on its etiology, clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics, and relationship with systemic and special diseases on the basis of special medical reports and by combining clinical practice experience and summarizing previous cheilitis diagnosis and treatment literature. In accordance with this classification method, we proposed suggestions for the clinical diagnosis of cheilitis to provide a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of complex cheilitis.

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Mechanism, prevention, and treatment for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws
Pan Jian, Liu Jiyuan
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 245-254.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.001
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The morbidity rate of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) increased rapidly in recent years. Thusfar, the mechanism of MRONJ has no consensus. The possible mechanisms may include bone remodeling inhibition theory, angiogenesis inhibition theory, oral microorganism infection theory, immunosuppression theory, cytotoxicity-targeted oral epithelial cells, microcrack formation of maxillary or mandibular bone, and single nucleotide polymorphism. However, the efficacy of prevention and treatment based on a single mechanism is not ideal. Routine oral examination before MRONJ-related drug treatment, treatment of related dental diseases, and regular oral follow-up during drug treatment are of great significance for the prevention of MRONJ. During the treatment of MRONJ, the stage of MRONJ must be determined accurately, treatment must be standardized in accordance with the guidelines, and personalized adjustments must be made considering the specific conditions of patients. This review aimed to combine the latest research and guidelines for MRONJ and the experiences on the treatment of MRONJ in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, and discuss the strategies to improve the clinical process.

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Impacted molar upright with self-made helical spring
Xu Yanzhe, Li Zhihua
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 362-367.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.018
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With a case of mesial impaction of maxillary first and second molar, the mechanical analysis and clinical applications of a self-made helical spring for the uprighting treatment of mesial impacted molars was introduced.

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Clinical analysis on the root fracture of the maxillary first molar
Yuan Zhiyao, Zou Xihong, Dai Linlin, Ao Huizhi, Li Houxuan.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 555-559.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.009
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Objective

This study aimed to investigate the common types and directions of root fractures of the maxillary first molar and the influence of root canal treatment on the prevalent sites of root fractures.

Methods

A total of 274 maxillary first molars with root fractures diagnosed via cone beam computed tomography were included. The root fractures of nonendodontically and endodontically treated teeth were identified to be spontaneous and secondary root fractures, respectively. The sites, types, and directions of spontaneous and secondary root fractures were determined.

Results

Among the spontaneous root fractures, the proportion of palatal root fractures (56.1%) was higher than those of mesial buccal root fractures (36.1%) and distal buccal root fractures (7.8%). Among the secondary root fractures, the proportion of mesial buccal root fractures (52.7%) was higher than those of palatal root fractures (36.5%) and distal buccal root fractures (10.8%). The distribution of predominant fracture sites was statistically significant (P<0.05), and vertical root fracture was the most common type. Palatal and buccal roots were commonly fractured at the mesiodistal and buccal-palatal directions, respectively.

Conclusion

This study provided an epidemiological basis for the clinical features of root fractures of the maxillary first molar. During the dia-gnosis and treatment of the maxillary first molar, the possibility of palatal root fractures should be considered. The occurrence of mesial buccal root fractures may be related to root canal treatment. Therefore, the risk of mesial buccal root fractures caused by iatrogenic factors should be minimized.

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Comprehensive correction of maxillofacial bone deformity—consideration and combined application of orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery
Zhu Songsong, Li Yunfeng
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 255-259.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.002
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The maxillofacial skeleton is the basis of the contour of the face. Orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery change jaw tissue and affect facial appearance in different manners. Orthognathic surgery is the main method to correct dental and maxillofacial deformities. It changes the shape of the jaw and improves the occlusal relationship by changing the three-dimensional position of the jaw. Facial contouring surgery mainly adopts the method of “bone reduction”, which changes the “amount”of the jawbone by cutting a part of the bone tissue to improve the facial appearance, generally without changing oral function. The combined use of orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery is becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. This also requires oral and maxillofacial surgeons to have a holistic consideration of the comprehensive correction of maxillofacial bone deformity, and to perform comprehensive analysis of jaw deformities and jaw plastic surgery to achieve the most ideal results. The author's team has been engaged in the clinical work of orthognathic surgery and facial contouring surgery and accumulated rich clinical experience in the comprehensive correction of maxillofacial bone deformity. In this article, the indications, treatment goals, treatment modes, treatment methods, and key points in the surgical operations of comprehensive maxillofacial bone surgery were summarized.

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Advances in biomimetic modification of materials for oromaxillofacial bone regeneration and dental implant
Jiang Xinquan
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 123-128.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.001
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Oromaxillofacial hard tissue defects is still a difficult problem in clinical treatment. Regeneration of oromaxillofacial hard tissue based on tissue engineering technology has a good clinical application prospect. The functional modification of scaffolds is one of key factors that influence the outcome of tissue regeneration. The biomimetic design of biomaterials through simulating the natural structure and composition of oromaxillofacial hard tissue has gradually become a research hotspot due to its advantages of simplicity and efficiency. In this article, the biomimetic modification of biomaterials for oromaxillofacial hard tissue regeneration is reviewed, expecting to provide a new idea for the treatment of oromaxillofacial hard tissue defect.

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A retrospective study of endodontic microsurgery about 302 patients
Chen Yiyan, Pradan Siras Prasad, Yang Jinbo
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 458-463.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.013
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Objective

To investigate the outcome of endodontic microsurgery and analyze the potential prognostic factors, and to evaluate the value of surgical classification by Kim and Kratchman.

Methods

Collecting clinical examination and radiographical examination of endodontic microsurgery cases (which were followed up at least 1 year), which were classified according to Kim and Kratchman, and we analyzed the outcome of endodontic microsurgery and its potential prognostic factors.

Results

302 patients (400 teeth) who received endodontic microsurgery were included. The one year success rate of endodontic microsurgery was 94.25%. Different classification had significant influences on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery (P<0.05), and the success rate of class B and C were better than those of class D, E, and F. The position of teeth had significant influences on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery (P<0.05). The success rate of maxillary teeth was higher than that of mandibular teeth. The success rate of anterior teeth was higher than that of posterior teeth (P<0.05). The quality of root end filling and first or second surgery had no effect on the outcome (P>0.05).

Conclusion

Endodontic microsurgery is an effective treatment method for saving affected teeth, and it can get a good result. Tooth position and classification are the potential prognostic factors. The surgical classification of Kim and Kratchman can help to predict the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.

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A randomized controlled study on color stability of tetracycline teeth restored with ceramic veneer
Shi Shuya, Gu Xiaoyu
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 336-340.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.014
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Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of tetracycline teeth restored with ceramic veneers of different thicknesses combined with different resin cement systems after aging.

Methods

Twenty patients with tetracycline teeth, including two maxillary central incisors, were selected clinically. The patients were randomly divided into four groups and restored with 0.5 and 0.75 mm ceramic veneers by using a veneer adhesive system, either with light-cured or dual-cured reaction. The color difference (ΔE) values after cementation and 1, 6, 12, and 24 months of use were obtained by quantification of L*, a*, and b* values with a colorimeter. The results were analyzed statistically with two-way ANOVA and Student's t test.

Results

The ΔE values of ceramic veneers detected after aging were less than 2.25. The 0.5 mm groups exhibited greater color change than the 0.75 mm-thick veneers (P<0.05). No significant difference was found on the color change of dual- or light-cured resin cements.

Conclusion

Resin cements and veneer thickness influence the color of ceramic veneers after aging. Cementation of veneers with either dual- or light-cured resin cements does not affect the long-term color stability of tetracycline teeth differently.

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Interarch distance is a target restorative space value: clinical decisionmaking of implant restoration guided by measured value
Zhang Yuqiang, Yu Haiyang
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 233-237.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.018
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When design an implant restoration for edentulous patients, many doctors ignore the sufficiency of the interarch distance (vertical distance) or horizontal distance of the patient to accommodate the superstructure and restoration before designing the implant plan. However, the connotation of measuring the interarch distance or horizontal distance has not been clarified in clinical practice. It is often based on visual estimation after operation, and the decision-making path of implant restoration is inverted, resulting in many mistakes regarding the restoration after implantation. The main reason is the lack of standardized paths and practical methods to use before surgery. This article recommended initially establishing a maxillo-mandibular relationship based on natural teeth, old dentures, or new ones and then using the height and horizontal distance or angle of the target restorative space, which was easier to grasp as the measured index. The minimum vertical distance (including the height of the gingival surface and the bone surface) and the horizontal distance (or the angle from the bone or gingival surface to the proposed occlusal plane) should be measured before operation. A decision tree of edentulous jaw restoration guided by the values of the repair space was established based on the measured values. This article clarified the measuring points and planes and thus provided a quantitative relationship basis for the design of implant restoration.

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Application analysis of a modified retroauricular hairline incision in the resection of a benign parotid gland tumor
Chen Fen, Li Yu, Ke Xing, Wu Pingfan, Guo Lingyan, Lei Zhenge, Tan Weibin, Chen Linlin
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 293-299.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.008
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Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the application value of a modified retroauricular hairline incision and a sternocleidomastoid flap with an inferior pedicle in the resection of benign parotid gland tumors.

Methods

Forty-eight patients with benign parotid gland tumors were retrospectively analyzed: 19 cases were included in the experimental group with an improved retroauricular hairline incision and a sternocleidomastoid flap with an inferior pedicle, and 29 cases were assigned in the control group with a modified facelift incision. Operation time, postoperative drainage, postoperative esthetic degree, and incidence of facial nerve paralysis, salivary fistula, and Frey's syndrome were compared.

Results

After the esthetic procedure, the average score of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, and the esthetic effect of the former was better than that of the latter (P<0.05). The incidence of the operation time, facial nerve paralysis, salivary fistula, and Frey's syndrome of both groups had no statistically significant differences (P>0.05).

Conclusion

The modified retroauricular hairline incision and sternocleidomastoid flap with an inferior pedicle can be applied to resect benign parotid gland tumors safely. It shows a better cosmetic effect and does not cause obvious postoperative complications. Therefore, it should be promoted for tumor treatments.

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Retrospective study on the merits of bone grafts and the influence of implant protrusion length after osteotome sinus elevation surgery
Yang Dawei, Xiao Jingyi, Zhang Peng, Lu Boyao, Liang Xing.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 570-575.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.012
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Objective

This study aims to evaluate the endo-sinus bone remodeling of dental implants placed via osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) after 6 months and using different implant protrusion lengths and bone grafts through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods

Ninety-six patients with 124 implants were included and assigned into four groups. Group 1: implant protrusion length<4 mm with bone graft; group 2: implant protrusion length>4 mm with bone graft; group 3: implant protrusion length<4 mm without bone graft; group 4: implant protrusion length>4 mm without bone graft. Apical bone gain (ABG), cortical bone gain (CBG), bone density gain (BDG), and marginal bone loss (MBL) were observed and analyzed at baseline and 6 months after implant surgery.

Results

The CBG in grafted groups 1 and 2 was higher than that in non-grafted groups. The ABG and BDG were higher in non-grafted groups 3 and 4 than in grafted groups, and the levels in group 3 were higher than those in group 4. The CBG in grafted group 2 was higher than that in group 1. No significant difference was observed in MBL analysis.

Conclusion

The BDG of IPL<4 mm implants was higher than IPL>4 mm implant when bone grafts were not applied. No relevance was observed between IPL and CBG. Bone grafts can accelerate endo-sinus bone remodeling by increasing CBG and dissipating the influence of IPL on BDG.

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Application of biomimetic restoration in oral-maxillofacial hard tissue repair
Niu Lina, Jiao Kai, Fang Ming, Chen Jihua
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.002
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Oral-maxillofacial hard tissue is the support of maxillofacial structure and appearance, and lays the foundation for functions of oral and maxillofacial system. Once the defect occurs, it will not only affect the physiological functions such as chewing and pronunciation, but also have a significant impact on the psychological and social life of patients. However, the self-repairing capability of the oral-maxillofacial hard tissue is pretty limited, in which case, substitute materials are required for tissue repair. A huge gap exists between the physical, chemical, structural characteristics of conventional substitute materials and those of human hard tissues, resulting in poor repair effect. Based on this, scholars simulated the process of biomineralization in the development of hard tissues, to improve the structure and function of materials through biomimetic mineralization technology and enhance the repair performance of materials. The current understanding of biomineralization theory and the construction of biomimetic repair technology is still in the stage of rapid development. In recent years, a mass of innovative studies are keeping emerging. In this review, the representative advances in the repair of oral-maxillofacial hard tissues of the past five years are reviewed.

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Finite element analysis of the effects of periodontal tissue temperature by continuous wave technique
Zhang Jianguo, Liu Jun, Cen Rong, Hu Fengling
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 447-452.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.011
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Objective

The safety of root canal filling with 200 °C hot gutta-percha was investigated to study the effect of continuous wave technique combined with high-temperature injectable gutta-percha condensation technique on the surface temperature of periodontal tissue.

Methods

CT technique and Mimics, Geomagic, and Solidworks software were utilized to build the entity models of alveolar bone, dentin and root canal, periodontal ligament, and blood flow, respectively, which were then assembled in Solidworks into a finite element model of tooth with blood flow. By utilizing ABAQUS collaborative simulation platform, fluid-structure coupling was analyzed on the whole process of root canal filling. Consequently, the surface temperature of the periodontal tissue was obtained.

Results

In the absence of blood flow, the temperature of the periodontal ligament surface reached 50.048 ℃ during root canal filling with 200 ℃ gutta-percha. Considering blood flow, the temperature of periodontal ligament surface was 39.570 ℃.

Conclusion

The temperature of the periodontal ligament surface increased when the continuous wave root canal was filled with 200 ℃ gutta-percha, and the periodontal tissue was not damaged.

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Effect of ceramic materials on the optical properties of porcelain veneers for tetracycline-stained teeth
Chen Jin, Xia Qi, Zhang Lingling, Qian Huifen, Li Xingxing
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 341-346.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.015
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Objective

To analyze the chromatic properties and translucency of porcelain veneers made from different ceramic materials against the background of tetracycline-stained teeth.

Methods

Porcelain specimens (A1, A3, B2, B4) measuring 0.50 mm in thickness were prepared by heat-press casting and layering. The L*, a*, and b* values of the specimens against simulated tetracycline tooth and black-and-white backgrounds were measured by a spectrophotometer, and color differences ΔE001 between specimens on simulated tetracycline backgrounds and the backgrounds themselves and ΔE002 between specimens on simulated tetracycline backgrounds and the white background were calculated. The translucent parameter (TP) was also evaluated.

Results

The ΔE001 of feldspathic specimens (IPS d.SIGN) with the opaque layer was significantly greater than that of glass ceramic specimens (IPS e.max Press LT), and the ΔE001 of group B4 was consistently greater than those of the other color groups (P<0.05). The ΔE002 values of all feldspathic specimens with the opaque layer were less than 1.25, and the ΔE002 values of the glass ceramic specimens were greater than 2.23. However, no significant difference was observed among the different color groups (P>0.05). The TP values of feldspathic specimens with the opaque layer were significantly lower than those of glass ceramic specimens(P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed among different color groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion

When changing the color of tetracycline-stained teeth, 0.50 mm-thick IPS d.SIGN feldspathic veneers with an opaque layer provide better chromatic properties than IPS e.max Press LT glass ceramic veneers. However, the translucency of feldspathic veneers is generally poorer than that of glass ceramic veneers.

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Clinical assessment of pterygoid and anterior implants in the atrophic edentulous maxilla: a retrospective study
Wu Jin, Liu Kun, Li Ming, Zhu Zhijun, Tang Chunbo
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 286-292.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.007
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Objective

This study aims to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction of anterior and pterygoid implants in the rehabilitation of edentulous maxilla with posterior atrophy.

Methods

Given a minimum follow-up of 1 year, 25 patients with fixed maxillary rehabilitation over anterior and pterygoid implants were enrolled in this retrospective study. The implant survival rates, peri-implant soft tissue status (including probing depth, modified sulcus bleeding index, and plaque index), marginal bone loss, and patient satisfaction were measured.

Results

The survival rates for anterior and pterygoid implants at 1-year follow-up were 96.5% and 97.8%, respectively (P>0.05). No statistically significant difference in probing depth, modified sulcus bleeding index, and plaque index was observed between the two types of implants (P>0.05). The marginal bone losses of anterior implants were 0.62 mm± 0.44 mm (mesial) and 0.61 mm± 0.40 mm (distal), and those of pterygoid implants were 0.64 mm± 0.46 mm (mesial) and 0.68 mm± 0.41 mm (distal) mm. These results showed no statistical difference in mesial and distal sites (P>0.05). Patients indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the full-arch prostheses supported by anterior and pterygoid implants.

Conclusion

For the edentulous maxilla with posterior atrophy, full-arch fixed prostheses supported by anterior and pterygoid implants has an acceptable short-term clinical outcome and excellent patient satisfaction. It may be considered as a predictable and feasible method for maxillary rehabilitation.

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The investigation of energy metabolism in osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Shi Yu.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 501-509.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.002
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The maintenance of bone homeostasis is critical for bone health. It is vulnerable to cause bone loss, even severely osteoporosis when the balance between bone formation and absorption is interrupted. Growing evidence has shown that energy metabolism disorders, such as abnormal glucose metabolism, irregular amino acid metabolism, and aberrant lipid metabolism, can damage bone homeostasis, causing or exacerbating bone mass loss and osteoporosis-related fractures. Here, we summarize the studies of energy metabolism in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and provide a better appreciation of how energy metabolism, especially glucose metabolism maintains bone homeostasis. With this knowledge, new avenues will be unraveled to understand and cue bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis.

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Clinical study of periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling in the treatment of residual pocket
Xu Yujuan, Zhao Lei, Wu Yafei, Duan Dingyu
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 441-446.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.010
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Objective

To compare the treatment effects of periodontal endoscope-assisted and traditional subgingival scaling on residual pockets.

Methods

A total of 13 patients with periodontitis from Dept. of Periodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University were recruited. After 4-6 weeks of initial treatment, the residual pockets with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and attachment loss (AL) of ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing were examined with traditional (control group) and periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling (endoscopy group) in a randomly controlled split-mouth design. At baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment, plaque index (PLI), PD, AL, and bleeding index (BI) were measured. Differences in these clinical parameters within and between groups and patient-reported outcomes were compared.

Results

A total of the 694 sites of 251 teeth were included in this trial. Both groups showed significant improvement in each periodontal parameters 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment (P<0.001). For sites in a single-rooted tooth, sites with PD≥5 mm, and sites without vertical alveolar bone resorption and furcation involvement, the PD in endoscopy group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05).

Conclusion

Periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling resulted in better effects than traditional subgingival scaling when the residual pockets were in a single-rooted tooth, with a PD of ≥5 mm but without vertical alveolar bone resorption and furcation involvement.

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Three-dimensional morphological changes in the temporomandibular joints of patients with anterior disc displacement with reduction
Teng Haidong, Shu Jingheng, Sun Tinghui, Pan Shiyu, Liu Zhan
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 203-208.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.012
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Objective

To investigate the differences in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) between patients with anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and asymptomatic subjects by using 3D morphometric measurements.

Methods

A total of 15 patients with ADDwR and 10 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Then, 3D models of the maxilla and mandible were reconstructed using MIMICS 20.0. Nine morphologic parameters of TMJs on both sides were measured on the 3D solid model. The differences in the parameters were analyzed between the patients and the asymptomatic subjects and between the left and right sides of each group.

Results

The horizontal and coronal condylar angles on the ipsilateral side of the patients were significantly greater than those of the asymptomatic subjects (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the sagittal ramus angle (SRA), medial joint space, lateral joint space, superior joint space, anterior joint space, and posterior joint space in the patients were significantly lower than those in the asymptomatic subjects (P<0.01).

Conclusion

ADDwR will increase the condylar angles to be significantly greater than the normal level and decrease SRA and articular spaces to be significantly smaller than the normal level. The condyles will be displaced upward, closer to the fossa.

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The question about the numerical value and quantitative data transfer of implant prosthodontics—orom experience guidance to digital guidance
Yu Haiyang
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 386-397.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.003
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The correct implant site design and placement are the basic clinical techniques that must be known for implant restoration. For a long time, most implants have been placed by free hands, and the choice of site is mostly dependent on the accumulation of long-term experience of the surgeon. The selection of implant site guided by this experience analogy logic is often based on the surgeon's level of experience,which often makes it very easy to produce complications related to the implant restoration of the incorrect site. In contrast, a clinical program using digital guidance and real-time measurable verification has emerged based on the restoration-oriented implantation concept, which marks the formation of an accurate, measurable and verifiable whole-process digital implant prototype. Furthermore, from the perspective of surveying, the numerical requirements that digital implant restoration relies on are actually incomplete to the four elements of measurement, which leading to the doubts about its authenticity. This article will question the numbers in implant restoration, and conduct a preliminary demonstration, and propose a new reliable actual measurement and verification method of the correct location and the numerical requirements of the restoration space and a new clinical program that relies on numbers from the perspective of the evolution of digital restoration, guided implantology and actual measurement technology. And this article further discusses the current mainstream implant restoration technology based on experience analogy which cannot effectively support the whole process of digital implant restoration and provides a new logical cognitive basis for the final realization of the entire process of digital implant restoration.

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Evaluation of therapeutic effect and health economics of general anesthesia and routine outpatient dental treatment in children with severe early child caries
Liu Yaqi, Zhang Qiong, Wang Yan, Qu Xing, Zou Jing
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (6): 703-708.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.06.012
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Objective

To evaluate the efficacy and health economics of the comprehensive therapy for the children with severe early child caries (S-ECC) under dental general anesthesia (DGA) and conventional outpatient treatment to provide references for dentists and parents in the choice of clinical treatment.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was conducted on S-ECC children aged 36-71 months and who received dental treatment under general anesthesia or routine outpatient situation. The filled tooth survival rate, treatment cost, and cost-filled tooth survival time of the two groups were compared, and the curative effect and health economics was evaluated.

Results

The filled tooth survival rate of the DGA group was higher than that of the routine outpatient group (P<0.05). The average direct medical cost per filled tooth was significantly higher in the DGA group than in the routine outpatient group (P<0.05). The direct medical cost-filled tooth survival time ratio in the DGA group was higher than that in the routine outpatient group (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed in the total medical cost-filled tooth survival time ratio (P>0.05).

Conclusion

Compared with the conventional outpatient treatment group, the treatment outcomes of S-ECC under general anesthesia were better, and the costs were higher. However, no significant difference was observed in the total medical cost-filled tooth survival time between these two groups, and the conventional outpatient treatment did not have evident economic advantages.

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Expanding the concept of patient-derived xenografts cohorts in head and neck cancer: current and future perspectives
Zhang Zhiyuan, Sun Shuyang
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (6): 617-623.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.06.001
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Head and neck cancer is the seventh common cancer in the world, and various existing treatment strategies provide modest benefit for most patients with head and neck cancer. Meanwhile, therapeutic strategies lacking molecular typing significantly hinder the development of individualized treatment for head and neck cancer. In recent years, connected by preclinical models, the novel ideal has gradually reached a consensus in terms of facilitating inter-transformation of clinical problems and basic achievements. As a bridge between basic research and clinical transformation, patient-derived xenografts (PDX) models precisely replicate genetic characteristics and tumor evolution, which are displaying great vitality in elucidating the mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression. Moreover, cohorts composed of several PDX models highlight the unique advantages of mice for drug screening and biomarker analysis for patients. This ideal preclinical model explores potential treatment strategies suited the ethical standards as much as possible for patients.

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Mandibular secretory carcinoma: a case report
Ou Xiaoping, Li Fangting, Wu Miaoyi
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 227-229.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.016
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Secretory carcinoma, a low-grade malignant tumor, occurs mainly in parotid, submandibular gland, and small salivary glands in the mouth. It has not yet been reported in the mandible. Now we report a case occurred in the right mandibular angle of secretory carcinoma, accompanying with its diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

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Progress on photodynamic therapy in oral diseases
Li Shensui, Wu Chenzhou, Li Longjiang
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 215-220.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has developed rapidly in basic and clinical research, and its therapeutic prospects have received increasing attention. PDT has the advantages of minimally invasive, low toxicity, high selectivity, good reproducibility, protection of appearance and vital organ function, and has become a treatment. With the development of medicine, the field of application of PDT becomes more wildly, and brings a new direction for the treatment of oral diseases. This article reviews the basic principles, treatment elements and research results of PDT in the treatment of oral diseases.

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Study on the application of oral digital design in aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth of cleft lip/palate patients
Yao Jinfeng, Deng Mengzhao, Xie Tian, Chen Kan, Wang Qiuxu, Liang Zhigang.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 582-590.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.014
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Objective

A study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects of oral digital design on the aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth of cleft lip/palate patients.

Methods

Nine adult cleft lip/palate patients who need aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth were recruited. Digital information of patients' dental arches, the surrounding soft tissue and face were captured by digital camera and scanner. The aesthetic analysis and design were conducted using keynote and 3shape software and were demonstrated to the patients. The optimized treatment plan was ensured by communicating with the patients. Digital wax-up models were exported and printed into resin diagnostic models, which were then utilized in the treatment process to guide the doctors and the technicians in tooth preparation and in making the final restorations, respectively. The adhesive procedure was completed after satisfactory try-in. Aesthetics assessment was conducted in accordance with the anterior esthetic evaluation form. The scores of patient's satisfaction were recorded on a questionnaire containing six items of aesthetic index and doctor-patient communication. Patients were interviewed and examined after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, and the clinical effects of restorations were evaluated.

Results

All nine patients had satisfactory clinical results. The aesthetic defects of the patients were effectively addressed. All treatments met the requirements of the preoperative digital designs. The patients' scores were all above 90 on the satisfaction scale. At 12 months after the operation, the clinical effects of restorations of all cases achieved A class in each evaluation indicator.

Conclusion

For cleft lip/palate patients with esthetic defect in the anterior teeth, the digital design plays an important role in optimizing the treatment plan and guides the whole treatment process. This design can help clinicians achieve predictable satisfactory aesthetic results.

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Research progress on the application of framework nucleic acid in bone regeneration
Lin Yunfeng
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (6): 624-632.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.06.002
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Framework nucleic acid (FNA) is a set of DNA nanostructures characterized by the framework morphology. It can design rational DNA sequences and follow the principle of complementary base pairing to construct FNA. The recent discovery of FNA constructed by DNA nanotechnology has great application potential in the field of bone regene-ration. It plays a positive role in the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, bone regeneration, vascular regeneration, neuromodulation, immune regulation, and drug delivery. Here, we reviewed the current study findings on FNA in the field of bone regeneration.

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Periodontal treatment of furcation involvement at the mandibular first molar with a follow-up of 27 years
Su Wenqi, Shi Jiahong, Cheng Yan, Lei Lang, Li Houxuan
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 347-354.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.016
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Due to the complicated anatomical structures in the furcation area of multirooted mandibular first molars, dental hygiene is greatly compromised once the furcation is involved in the periodontitis, leading to the unfavorable prognosis of teeth with furcation involvement. A patient came to a dental office with the chief complaint of “mobile mandibular posterior tooth” 27 years ago. The periapical film showed alveolar bone resorption at the root furcation of the right mandibular first molar. Flap surgery and fine supportive therapy were conducted. The patient was diagnosed with “furcation involvement Class Ⅲ” during a revisit three years ago. Satisfactory and healthy periodontal statuses were observed 2, 9, 24, and 33 months after the periodontal flap surgery plus tunneling procedures. A follow-up of 27 years in the present case demonstrated that a favorable prognosis of furcation involvement can be achieved after adequate periodontal treatment.

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An investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental zirconia manufactured by digital light processing 3D printing
Mei Ziyu, Lu Yuqing, Lou Yuxin, Zhang Junjing, Sun Manlin, Yu Haiyang.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 576-581.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.013
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Objective

This study was performed to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental zirconia manufactured by digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing and the clinical application prospects of this material.

Methods

The experiment (DLP) group was zirconia manufactured by DLP 3D printing, and the control (MILL) group was milled zirconia. The density, grain size, and phase composition were measured to study the microstructure. Flexural strength was measured by using three-point bending tests, while Vickers hardness was determined through a Vickers hardness tester. Fracture toughness was tested using the single-edge V-notched beam method.

Results

Zirconia density of the DLP group was (6.019 8±0.021 3) g·cm-3, and the average grain size was (0.603 0±0.032 6) μm, but without statistical difference with the corresponding values of the MILL group (P>0.05). Tetragonal phase was found in the X-ray diffraction patterns of the DLP and MILL groups. The flexural strength of the DLP group was (1 012.7±125.5) MPa, and Vickers hardness was (1 238.5±10.8) HV1, which was slightly lower than that of the MILL group (P<0.05). The fracture toughness of the DLP group was (7.22±0.81) MPa·m1/2, which was not statistically different from that of the MILL group (P>0.05).

Conclusion

Zirconia manufactured by DLP 3D printing had microstructure and mechanical properties similar to those of the milled zirconia. Only the flexural strength and the Vickers hardness of the experimental zirconia were slightly lower than those of the milled zirconia. Therefore, DLP-manufactured zirconia has a promising future for clinical use.

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Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the osteoradionecrosis of the jaws: Meta-analysis
Yin Yin, Zeng Wei, Jing Wei, Tang Wei, Guo Weihua
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (6): 690-697.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.06.010
Abstract335)   HTML40)    PDF(pc) (2233KB)(323)       Save
Objective

This study was performed to investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and other approaches for treating the osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORNJ) systematically.

Methods

According to the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies on hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of ORNJ were screened, and foreign language databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library were searched via a computer; Chinese databases such as CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, and CBM were searched from the established database to September 2020. Relevant books were searched manually to collect all literatures on the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen and its related therapies in ORNJ treatment. Two researchers were independent and mutually blind, the papers were selected, data were collected, and the bias risk was evaluated. If any difference was detected, it would be decided by discussion or arbitrated by a third party. The data related to the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen and its related therapy in the treatment of the ORNJ were extracted, and the Revman5.4 software was used for Meta-analysis. In case of large heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis was performed. A funnel chart was used to evaluate possible publication bias qualitatively.

Results

Four randomized controlled trials and seven cohort studies were included in Meta-analyses. In ORNJ treatment, no significant differences between the group subjected to hyperbaric oxygen and both surgery and antibiotics and the group that underwent both surgery and antibiotics (RR=1.16, 95%CI: 0.86~1.58, P>0.05); between the group with hyperbaric oxygen and the group with antibiotics (RR=0.83, 95%CI: 0.63~1.09, P>0.05); between the group with hyperbaric oxygen and the group with antifibrotic drugs (RR=0.07, 95%CI: 0.00~155.86, P>0.05); between the group with single or combined use of HBO and the group with other intervention methods (RR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.67~1.19, P>0.05).

Conclusion

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy cannot replace surgery and antibiotic therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not superior to antibiotics and antifibrotic drugs, but the benefits of antifibrotic drugs should be further explored.

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Tilted implantation technique for edentulous patients
Fan Zhen, Liu Yue, Wang Zuolin
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 377-385.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.002
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The tilted implantation technique is characterized by placing the implant at an angle of more than 15° and less than 45° from the horizontal plane. This technique can avoid damaging the maxillary sinus, inferior alveolar nerve, nasal base, and other anatomical structures when the height of the upper and lower jaw available bone is insufficient, to maximize the use of available bone and avoid a large range of bone increment. The tilted implantation technique can reduce the trauma of the surgery, increase the possibility of immediate restoration and shorten the treatment cycle, which has been widely used clinically. In this review, the scope of application, design elements, design scheme and complications of the tilted implantation technique for edentulous patients will be described.

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Abnormal static and dynamic brain function in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Yin Yuanyuan, Li Fei, He Shushu, Chen Song
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (6): 682-689.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.06.009
Abstract330)   HTML43)    PDF(pc) (2010KB)(280)       Save
Objective

This study was conducted to investigate the brain function of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) by combining the static and dynamic amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF).

Methods

Thirty patients with TMD and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. All the participants completed their questionnaires, received clinical examinations, and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. We compared the static and dynamic ALFF between the patients and healthy controls by conducting a two-sample t-test with AlphaSim correction for multiple comparisons. The correlation between the static and dynamic ALFF of the brain regions with significant group differences and clinical measurements was analyzed.

Results

The patients with TMD showed increased static and dynamic ALFF in the posterior cingulate cortex compared with that of the controls (whole-brain level, uncorrected P=0.005; region of interest level with AlphaSim correction, voxel level P<0.005, cluster level P<0.05). The dynamic ALFF of the posterior cingulate cortex was negatively correlated with bilateral condylar vertical discrepancies. The dynamic ALFF in the medial orbitofrontal cortex of the patients with TMD was greater than that of the controls (whole-brain level AlphaSim correction, voxel level P<0.005, cluster level P<0.05).

Conclusion

Our findings revealed that the resting-state brain function of the posterior cingulate cortex and the medial orbitofrontal cortex of patient with TMD increased. These changes probably indicated the potential central mechanisms underlying the increased self-relevant thoughts, negative emotion, and abnormal emotion regulation in TMD.

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Use of two kinds of antioxidants to restore the bond strength of bleached enamel
Xu Yingxin, Li Wen, Su Min
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 453-457.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.012
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Objective

This work aimed to evaluate the ability of two kinds of antioxidants, namely, grape-seed extract and sodium ascorbate, in restoring bond strength at the resin-enamel interface after bleaching.

Methods

Ten groups of samples with 15 teeth per group were prepared for shear-bond-strength test at the resin-enamel interface after bleaching. The groups were as follows: control; no antioxidant; 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 15% grape-seed extract; and 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 15% sodium ascorbate. The peak values of shear bond strength when resin was debonded from teeth and the failure modes under a microscope were recorded. Ten other groups of teeth with two teeth per group were prepared and treated in a similar approach before resin bonding. The samples were cut vertically to the bonding interface. The structures of the bonding interface were compared by scanning electron microscopy.

Results

No statistically significant difference in shear bond strength was found among the no-antioxidant, 2.5% grape-seed extract, and 2.5%, 5%, or 10% sodium ascorbate groups (P>0.05), which were statistically significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Evidence of marginal gap was observed at the resin-enamel interface, and resin tags in enamel were short, poorly defined, and fragmented. No statistically significant difference in shear bond strength was found among 5%, 10%, or 15% grape-seed extract, 15% sodium ascorbate, and control groups (P>0.05). No evidence of discontinuity was found at the adhesion interface, and resin tags in enamel were long, well defined, and structurally intact. Failure in the adhesive joint was the major debond mode in all experimental groups.

Conclusion

Immediately after bleaching, the bond strength of dental enamel significantly decreased. Bond strength can be restored by 5% grape-seed extract or 15% sodium ascorbate in 5 min.

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Clinical analysis of arthroscopy used in the diagnosis and treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint
Qiao Yongming, Wang Ying, Li Rui
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (2): 209-214.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.02.013
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Objective

To evaluate the value of arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJSC).

Methods

The cases of 16 patients preliminarily diagnosed with TMJSC by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from July 2011 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. If the diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy, the opening operation was performed. The preoperative MRI, arthroscopy and opening operation, postoperative pathology and postoperative MRI of confirmed cases were analyzed, and clinical follow-up was performed to evaluate the curative effect of open surgery. The degree of mouth opening and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain pre-operation and during follow-up of the confirmed cases were analyzed by t-test.

Results

Fourteen cases of TMJSC were diagnosed by arthroscopy, consistent with the postoperative pathological diagnosis. Postoperative MRI examination showed that articular cavity lesions basically disappeared. Ten patients with synovial chondromatosis were followed-up (follow-up rate, 71.4%) from 6 months to 7 years and 8 months (average follow-up time, 17.6 months); no recurrence was found, and clinical symptoms improved by varying degrees. Before operation and at follow-up, t-test results of opening degree difference were t=7.757, P<0.05; t-test results of VAS were t=-3.274, P<0.05.

Conclusion

Arthroscopy is essential in the diagnosis and treatment of TMJ synovial chondromatosis.

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Short-term efficacy of superficial X-ray treatment for infantile maxillofacial hemangioma
Tang Lina, Liu Gang, Yang Chao, Sha Xiaowei, Wang Siyu
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 464-468.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.014
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Objective

This study aimed to explore the short-term clinical efficacy and factors influencing low-dose superficial X-ray for treating infantile maxillofacial hemangioma.

Methods

Retrospective analysis was conducted on 161 cases of infants with maxillofacial hemangioma treated with superficial X-ray in the Laser Center of Dermatology Department of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2017. Clinical efficacy was analyzed by comparing the photos before and after treatment. Patients were further divided into groups according to different genders, age at the start of treatment, preterm birth or low birth weight, hemangioma site, longest diameter of hemangioma, and type of hemangioma to analyze whether differences existed in clinical efficacy and therapeutic dose between different groups.

Results

Twelve months after the end of treatment, the overall cure rate was 93.8%, and the significant efficiency was 97.5%. The clinical efficacy was related to the age of children at the beginning of treatment and the type of hemangioma (P<0.05). The clinical efficacy of children aged less than or equal to 12 months and superficial hemangioma group was better than that of children aged more than 12 months and deep subtype or mixed hemangioma group, respectively. Therapeutic doses associa-ted with hemangioma treatment with diameter, category, age (P<0.05), diameter greater than or equal to 4 cm hemangioma group, the mixed type or deep in the group, the children older than 12 months hemangioma group, respectively, the dia-meter is less than 4 cm hemangioma, superficial hemangioma group and age less than or equal to 12 months hemangioma total treatment group exposure dose is greater.

Conclusion

Low-dose superficial X-ray is safe and effective for the treatment of infantile maxillofacial hemangioma. Age and type of hemangioma at the time of treatment are the factors influencing therapeutic dose and clinical efficacy.

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Effect of piceatannol against malignant melanoma in vivo and in vitro
Yu Bo, Liu Wei, Hu Minqi, Tang Xiufa, Li Chunjie, Que Lin
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (4): 413-418.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.006
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Objective

To study the antitumor effect of piceatannol (PIC) on malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo.

Methods

B16F10 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with gradient concentrations of PIC. Cell viability was detected with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and p-Syk were detected with Western blot; migration ability was detected with wound healing assay; invasion ability was detected with Transwell assay. Syk expression was suppressed through RNA interference for the detection of the possible mechanism of PIC in melanoma. An in vivo study was established by creating B16F10-bearing mice with intraperitoneal injection of PIC.

Results

The cell viability of B16F10 decreased with increasing PIC concentration. The results of the Transwell assay showed that invasion ability decreased with increasing PIC concentration, and healing time was prolonged at increased PIC concentration in the wound healing assay. Western blot results showed that PIC mainly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk and inhibited the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF. RNA interference pointed out that blocking the expression of Syk can reveal the same inhibition effect on B16F10 cells as PIC. In vivo study revealed that different concentrations of PIC cangreatly inhibit melanoma progression.

Conclusion

PIC might block the progression of malignant melanoma by inhibiting spleen tyrosine kinase.

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Targeting-YAP/TAZ therapies for head and neck cancer, directly or indirectly?
Feng Xiaodong.
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (5): 493-500.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.05.001
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YAP/TAZ are wild over-activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with high potential as a direct therapy target for HNSCC treatments. However, the efforts on the directly targeting-YAP/TAZ therapies over the past decade, have very limited impacts, mainly caused by: 1. There is still none effective and specific YAP/TAZ inhibitor with clinical potential; 2. YAP/TAZ might not be directly targeted, because of their multiple important biological functions, such as: regulation of cell proliferation and survival, stem cell maintain, regulation of organ development, organ size control, and tissue regeneration. Interestingly, the over-activation of YAP/TAZ in HNSCC mainly be regulated by upstream abnormal molecular or biological events, instead of genes alteration of YAP/TAZ. Therefore, exploring the alternative molecular events regulating YAP/TAZ activation and molecular mechanism in HNSCC might help to uncover novel indirect targets of YAP/TAZ therapies for HNSCC prevention and treatment.

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Clinical performance of intraoral digital impression for fixed prosthodontics: a Meta-analysis
Chen Ling, Chen Cheng, Li Zhiyong, Zhang Qi
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 306-312.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.010
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Objective

To analyze the clinical performance of the intraoral digital impression (IDI) in the fixed prosthodontics.

Methods

Databases of Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CNKI were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the use of IDI in fixed prosthodontics until May 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. A Meta-analysis was conducted when available.

Results

Eleven RCTs involving 618 patients were included in this study. A total of 2 and 3 studies had low and high risks of bias, respectively, and other included studies had a medium risk of bias. Results illustrated that the IDI group could shorten the impression-taken time [SMD=-5.63, 95%CI (-11.25, -0.01), P=0.05] and improve the accuracy of the marginal fit [SMD=-0.53, 95%CI (-0.84, -0.22), P=0.000 7] compared with the conventional impression group. However, no significant difference was observed in the internal fit.

Conclusion

Evidence indicated a good clinical performance of IDI for fixed prosthodontics. Notably, high-quality studies are expected to further support the conclusion.

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Effects of isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase silencing on the migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma
Zhou Nan, Chi Zengpeng, Li Wenjian, Zhao Kai, Wang Shaoru, Wang Qimin, Tong Lei, He Zongxuan, Han Hongyu, Wang Ying, Chen Zhenggang
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 328-335.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.013
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Objective

The effect of isoprenylcysteine carboxymethyltransferase (ICMT) silencing on the migration and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma was investigated by constructing the small interfering RNA (siRNA) of ICMT.

Methods

Through liposomal transfection, siRNA was transfected into human tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells (ICMT-siRNA group) with a negative control group (transfected with NC-siRNA) and a blank control group (transfected with a transfection reagent but not with siRNA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of ICMT and RhoA in each group of cells after transfection and to measure the silencing efficiency. Western blot was applied to examine the expression levels of ICMT, total RhoA, membrane RhoA, ROCK1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 proteins in each group. The migration and invasion abilities were evaluated via wound healing and Transwell motility assays.

Results

After CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were transfected with ICMT-siRNA, the expression levels of ICMT genes and proteins decreased significantly in the experimental group compared with those in the negative and blank control groups (P<0.05). The mRNA and total protein expression levels of RhoA in the two groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). The expression levels of RhoA membrane protein, ROCK1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 decreased (P<0.05). The migration and invasion abilities were inhibited (P<0.05).

Conclusion

The migration and invasion abilities of CAL-27 and SCC-4 cells were reduced significantly after the transfection of ICMT-siRNA, and the involved mechanism might be related to the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway.

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Protective effect of low-level laser irradiation on lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory injury of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts
Jin Xiaolan, Zhang Yanan, Sun Chengrui, Zou Zhaohui
West China Journal of Stomatology    2021, 39 (3): 260-266.   DOI: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.03.003
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Objective

To study the effect and mechanism of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs).

Methods

hPDLFs were inoculated into well plates and randomly divided into the normal group, LPS group, and LPS+LLLI group. The cells in the normal group were cultured in conventional medium. The hPDLFs in the LPS and LPS+LLLI groups were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 1 mg·L-1 LPS. The three subgroups of the LPS+LLLI group were exposed to different LLLI. After 4 days, the cell apoptosis, viability, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration of each group were measured. The contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 genes and proteins of hPDLFs in each group.

Results

Compared with the normal group, the LPS group showed increased apoptosis rate of hPDLFs and intracellular free Ca2+concentration and decreased cell viability (P<0.05). The TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were higher in the cell supernatant (P<0.05), and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 genes and proteins of hPDLFs was significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the LPS group, the LPS+LLLI group showed significantly decreased apoptosis rate and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and significantly increased cell viability (P<0.05). The TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the supernatant of cells and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 genes and proteins of hPDLFs were significantly decreased (P<0.05).

Conclusion

LLLI has a protective effect on the inflammatory injury of hPDLFs induced by LPS, and the effect is most obvious when the irradiation intensity is 4 J·cm-2.

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