Current Issue
01 April 2024, Volume 42 Issue 2
  • Special Review
    Clinical application principles and new developments of zirconia crown
    Wang Jian, Yang Linxin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  135-141.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023404
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    Zirconia crown has been widely used in the field of prosthodontics. Traditional zirconia exhibits excellent mechanical properties but lacks translucency. The introduction of transparent zirconia significantly enhances its aesthetic performance. In clinical applications, factors affecting the aesthetic results of full zirconia crown should be comprehensively considered, and the most suitable restoration should be chosen. Additionally, clinicians need to design appropriate tooth preparation dimensions and methods based on an individual patient’s actual situation. During the clinical bonding process of zirconia, proper surface treatment of the tooth and restoration is essential. The selection of suitable adhesives is crucial for achieving optimal bonding strength and aesthetics.

    Clinical considerations of emergent oral manifestations during pregnancy
    Zhang Xuefeng, Liu Xian, Liu Chang, Hua Chengge
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  142-153.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023367
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    Pregnancy is a special period for developing and treating oral diseases. Oral emergencies during pregnancy need to be handled appropriately. Changes in the physiological environments and personal habits of pregnant women increase susceptibility to some oral diseases. However, clinical treatment strategies are limited due to the need to ensure the safety of pregnant women and fetuses. Pregnant women should obtain oral health knowledge and enhance their awareness. Dentists should adhere to the principle of “prevention before pregnancy, controlling symptoms during pregnancy, and treating diseases after pregnancy” for different pregnancy periods. They should also formulate appropriate treatment plans to control emergencies, prevent disease progression, and avoid harmful effects on pregnant women by using the safest, simplest, and most effective strategies that avoid adverse effects on fetuses. Pregnant women and dentists should combine prevention and treatment while collaborating in maintaining oral health during pregnancy. This article focuses on the principles of treatment during pregnancy, and the treatment timing, clinical management, and treatment strategies of different diseases causing oral emergencies during pregnancy are reviewed.

    Classified diagnosis and treatment scheme of oral cosmetic restoration based on aesthetic analysis (part Ⅱ): Chinese aesthetic connotation and analysis scheme
    Yu Haiyang, Zhao Junyi, Sun Manlin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  154-162.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023462
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    At present, the commonly used clinical protocols of oral cosmetic restoration are mostly based on the oral aesthetic indexes proposed by Western developed countries (referred to as Western aesthetics), which are different from the oral aesthetic indexes unique to Chinese people (referred to as Chinese aesthetics). In the design of restoration schemes and the evaluation of restoration effects, these differences have a large or small effect on the doctor-patient-technology triad. Improper handling could directly weaken the cooperation efficiency of the three parties, reduce patient satisfaction, and even lead to medical disputes in serious cases. From doing a good job of oral cosmetic restoration in China, the connotative characteristics of Chinese oral aesthetics are introduced in this paper, and the value of oral aesthetic analysis in diagnosis and treatment is discussed. The process and method of aesthetic analysis and assessment through the modified Chinese psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire and the evaluation ruler of the expected value of oral cosmetic restoration are further introduced in detail.

    Basic Research
    Impact of circadian clock protein Bmal1 on experimentally-induced periodontitis-associated renal injury
    Ma Haonan, Li Qiong, Shang Yaqi, Xin Xirui, Liu Xinchan, Wu Zhou, Yu Weixian
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  163-171.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023245
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    Objective To investigate the mechanism of circadian clock protein Bmal1 (Bmal1) on renal injury with chronic periodontitis, we established an experimental rat periodontitis model. Methods Twelve male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and periodontitis groups (n=6, each group). The first maxillary molars on both sides of the upper jaw of rats with periodontitis were ligated by using orthodontic ligature wires, whereas the control group received no intervention measures. After 8 weeks, clinical periodontal parameters, including probing depth, bleeding index, and tooth mobility, were evaluated in both groups. Micro-CT scanning and three-dimensional image reconstruction were performed on the maxillary bones of the rats for the assessment of alveolar bone resorption. Histopatholo-gical observations of periodontal and renal tissues were conducted using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Renal function indicators, such as creatinine, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen levels, and oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels, were measured using biochemical assay kits. MitoSOX red staining was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in the kidneys. The gene and protein expression levels of Bmal1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat renal tissues were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Results Micro-CT and HE staining results showed significant bone resorption and attachment loss in the maxillary first molar region of the periodontitis group. Histological examination through HE and PAS staining revealed substantial histopathological damage to the renal tissues of the rats in the periodontitis group. The findings of the assessment of renal function and oxidative stress markers indicated that the periodontitis group exhibited abnormal levels of oxidative stress, whereas the renal function levels showed abnormalities without statistical significance. MitoSOX Red staining results showed that the content of ROS in the renal tissue of the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression levels of Bmal1, Nrf2, and HO-1 in the renal tissues of the rats in the periodontitis group showed a decreasing trend. Conclusion Circadian clock protein Bmal1 plays an important role in the oxidative damage process involved in the renal of rats with periodontitis.

    Effects of surface nanomorphology on the senescence of periodontal ligament stem cells
    Sun Yanping, Liao Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  172-180.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023244
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    Objective The effect of TiO2 nanotube morphology on the differentiation potency of senescent periodontal ligament stem cells was investigated. Methods Two types of titanium sheets with TiO2 nanotube morphology (20V-NT and 70V-NT) were prepared via anodic oxidation at 20 and 70 V separately, and their surface morphology was observed. Young periodontal ligament stem cells were cultivated in an osteogenic induction medium, and the most effective surface morphology in promoting osteogenic differentiation was selected. RO3306 and Nutlin-3a were used to induce the aging of young periodontal ligament stem cells, and senescent periodontal ligament stem cells were obtained. The osteogenic differentiation of senescent periodontal ligament stem cells was induced, and the effect of surface morphology on osteogenic differentiation was observed. Results Nanotube morphology was achieved on the surfaces of titanium sheets through anodic oxidation, and the diameters of the nanotubes increased with voltage. A significant difference in the effect of nanotube morphology was found among nanotubes with different diameters in the young periodontal ligament stem cells. The surface nanotube morphology of 20V-NT had a more significant effect that promoted osteogenic differentiation. Compared with a smooth titanium sheet, the surface nanotube morphology of 20V-NT increased the number of alkaline phosphatase-positive senescent periodontal ligament stem cells and promoted calcium deposition and the expression of osteogenic marker genes Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. Conclusion A special nanotube morphology enhances the differentiation ability of senescent periodontal ligament stem cells, provides an effective method for periodontal regeneration, and further improves the performance of implants.

    Potential mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of periodontitis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    Sun Jinmeng, Zhang Ying, Zheng Zejun, Ding Xiaoling, Sun Minmin, Ding Gang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  181-191.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023285
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    Objective To explore the mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of periodontitis based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Methods Potential targets of ginseng and periodontitis were obtained through various databases. The intersection targets of ginseng and periodontitis were obtained by using VENNY, the protein-protein interaction network relationship diagram was formed on the STRING platform, the core target diagram was formed by Cytoscape software, and the ginseng-active ingredient-target network diagram was constructed. The selected targets were screened for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The core targets of ginseng’s active ingredients in treating periodontitis were analyzed by molecular docking technique. Results The 22 ginseng’s active ingredients, 591 potential targets of ginseng’s active ingredients, 2 249 periodontitis gene targets, and 145 ginseng-periodontitis intersection targets were analyzed. Ginseng had strong binding activity on core targets such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and epidermal growth factor receptor, as well as hypoxia induced-factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway. Conclusion Ginseng and its active components can regulate several signaling pathways such as HIF-1 and PI3K-Akt, thereby indicating that ginseng may play a role in treating periodontitis through multiple pathways.

    Verification of the expression trend and interaction prediction of innate immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules in the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis
    Li Kaiyu, Shi Lijuan, Liu Linxin, Wang Jie, Nie Minhai, Liu Xuqian
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  192-206.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023280
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    Objective This study aimed to explore the expression trends of innate immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated by data calculation in the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis, as well as to explore methods of suppressing oral mucosal carcinogenesis based on immunotherapy by predicting their interactions. Me-thods 1) The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database comprehensively scores immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules in the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and screens out intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules that interfere with tumor immune escape. 2) Clinical patient blood routine data were collected for the statistical analysis of peripheral blood immune cells during the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. Immune cells in peripheral blood that may affect the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis were screened. 3) Immunohistochemical staining was performed on intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated based on data calculation in various stages of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. 4) Special staining was used to identify innate immune cells in various stages of oral mucosal carcinogenesis based on data-calculation verification. 5) Survival analysis was conducted on intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated based on data calculation during the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. The association of intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules with the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma was verified. Results The expression of monocytes and neutrophils increased during the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. The expression of eosinophils showed a single peak trend of up and down. The expression of mast cells decreased. In the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis, the expression of the immune-checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death-ligand (PD-L1) increased. The expression trends of monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils were positively correlated with those of CTLA4 and PD-L1 immune-checkpoint molecules. The expression trend of mast cells was negatively correlated with the expression of CTLA4 and PD-L1. Monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils may promote tumor immune escape mediated by CTLA4 and/or PD-L1, thereby accelerating the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. Mast cells may inhibit tumor immune escape mediated by CTLA4 and/or PD-L1, delaying the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. Conclusion Therefore, interference with specific immune cells in innate immunity can regulate the expression of CTLA4 and/or PD-L1 to a certain extent, inhibit tumor immune escape, and delay the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis.

    Clinical Research
    Site selection of micro-implant anchorages in the infrazygomatic crest in adult orthodontic patients
    Chen Xinyi, Jiang Xiaoge, Chen Song
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  207-213.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023282
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    Objective To determine the optimal placement of miniscrews, this study compared adult male and female patients in terms of cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and available bone width in the infrazygomatic crest region. Methods The cone beam computed tomography imaging data of 200 patients (20-30 years old; 100 males and 100 females) were collected. The right maxillary posterior teeth in the sagittal plane were divided into six levels from proximal to distal, and three measurement sites were positioned at vertical distances of 8, 10, and 12 mm from the cementum. Cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and available bone width were measured in 18 measurement sites in the infrazygomatic crest and analyzed statistically. Results The highest cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and available bone width in the infrazygomatic crest in adult male and female patients were at the level of the interradicular space between the maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar. The bone cortical density and thickness increased with vertical height, whereas the available bone width decreased with increasing vertical height. Differences were observed in cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and available bone width between adult male and female patients. Conclusion The optimal implantation sites of the micro-implant anchorages in the infrazygomatic crest were at the level of the interradicular space between the maxillary second premolar and the maxillary first molar, and the vertical height of the optimal implantation site in males was appropriately higher than that in females.

    Construction of a diagnostic model based on random forest and artificial neural network for peri-implantitis
    Yang Haoran, Chen Yuxiang, Zhao Anna, Cheng Tingting, Zhou Jianzhong, Li Ziliang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  214-226.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023275
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    Objective This study aimed to reveal critical genes regulating peri-implantitis during its development and construct a diagnostic model by using random forest (RF) and artificial neural network (ANN). Methods GSE-33774, GSE106090, and GSE57631 datasets were obtained from the GEO database. The GSE33774 and GSE106090 datasets were analyzed for differential expression and functional enrichment. The protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and RF screened vital genes. A diagnostic model for peri-implantitis was established using ANN and validated on the GSE33774 and GSE57631 datasets. A transcription factor-gene interaction network and a transcription factor-micro-RNA (miRNA) regulatory network were also established. Results A total of 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the regulation of peri-implantitis were screened. Enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly associated with immune receptor activity and cytokine receptor activity and were mainly involved in processes such as leukocyte and neutrophil migration. The PPI and RF screened six essential genes, namely, CD38, CYBB, FCGR2A, SELL, TLR4, and CXCL8. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) indicated that the ANN model had an excellent diagnostic performance. FOXC1, GATA2, and NF-κB1 may be essential transcription factors in peri-implantitis, and hsa-miR-204 may be a key miRNA. Conclusion The diagnostic model of peri-implantitis constructed by RF and ANN has high confidence, and CD38, CYBB, FCGR2A, SELL, TLR4, and CXCL8 are potential diagnostic markers. FOXC1, GATA2, and NF-κB1 may be essential transcription factors in peri-implantitis, and hsa-miR-204 plays a vital role as a critical miRNA.

    Trueness evaluation of three intraoral scanners for the recording of maximal intercuspal position
    Wang Siyu, Zhou Zheqing, Yuan Quan, Yue Li, Yang Shengtao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  227-233.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023277
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    Objective This clinical study aimed to assess the trueness of three intraoral scanners for the recor-ding of the maximal intercuspal position (MIP) to provide a reference for clinical practice. Methods Ten participants with good occlusal relationship and healthy temporomandibular joint were recruited. For the control group, facebow transferring procedures were performed, and bite registrations at the MIP were used to transfer maxillary and mandibular casts to a mechanical articulator, which were then scanned with a laboratory scanner to obtain digital cast data. For the experimental groups, three intraoral scanners (Trios 3, Carestream 3600, and Aoralscan 3) were used to obtain digital casts of the participants at the MIP following the scanning workflows endorsed by the corresponding manufacturers. Subsequently, measurement points were marked on the control group’s digital casts at the central incisors, canines, and first molars, and corresponding distances between these points on the maxillary and mandibular casts were measured to calculate the sum of measured distances (DA). Distances between measurement points in the incisor (DI), canine (DC), and first molar (DM) regions were also calculated. The control group’s maxillary and mandibular digital casts with the added measurement points were aligned with the experimental group’s casts, and DA, DI, DC, and DM values of the aligned control casts were determined. Statistical analysis was performed on DA, DI, DC, and DM obtained from both the control and experimental groups to evaluate the trueness of the three intraoral scanners for the recording of MIP. Results In the control group, DA, DI, DC, and DM values were (39.58±6.40), (13.64±3.58), (14.91±2.85), and (11.03±1.56) mm. The Trios 3 group had values of (38.99±6.60), (13.42±3.66), (14.55±2.87), and (11.03±1.69) mm. The Carestream 3600 group showed values of (38.57±6.36), (13.56±3.68), (14.45±2.85), and (10.55±1.41) mm, while the Aoralscan 3 group had values of (38.16±5.69), (13.03±3.54), (14.23±2.59), and (10.90±1.54) mm. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups for overall deviation DA (P=0.96), as well as local deviations DI (P=0.98), DC (P=0.96), and DM (P=0.89). Conclusion With standardized scanning protocols, the three intraoral scanners demonstrated comparable trueness to traditional methods in recording MIP, fulfilling clinical requirements.

    Chairside digital design and manufacturing method for children’s band and loop space maintainers
    Qin Qingzhao, Hu Jia, Chen Xiaoxian, Shi Bingqing, Gao Zixiang, Zhu Yujia, Wen Aonan, Wang Yong, Zhao Yijiao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  234-241.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023346
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    Objective This study proposes a chairside digital design and manufacturing method for band and loop space maintainers and preliminarily validates its clinical feasibility. Methods Clinical cases of 10 children requiring space maintenance caused by premature loss of primary teeth were collected. Intraoral scan data of the affected children were also collected to establish digital models of the missing teeth. Using a pediatric band and loop space maintainer design software developed by our research team, a rapid personalized design of band and loop structures was achieved, and a digital model of an integrated band and loop space maintainer was ultimately generated. A chairside space maintainer was manufactured through metal computer numerical control machining for the experimental group, whereas metal 3D printing in the dental laboratory was used for the control group. A model fitting assessment was conducted for the space maintainers of both groups, and senior pediatric dental experts were invited to evaluate the clinical feasibility of the space maintainers with regard to fit and stability using the visual analogue scale scoring system. Statistical analysis was also performed. Results The time spent in designing and manufacturing the 10 space maintainers of the experimental group was all less than 1 h. Statistical analysis of expert ratings showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group with regard to fit and stability. Both types of space maintainers met clinical requirements. Conclusion The chairside digital design and manufacturing method for pediatric band and loop space maintainers proposed in this study can achieve same-day fitting of space maintainers at the first appointment, demonstrating good clinical feasibility and significant potential for clinical application.

    A retrospective study on iRoot BP Plus full pulpotomy for primary molars with partial irreversible pulpitis
    Hu Xiaoyan, Zhao Chunhui, Wang Lu, Zhang Zheng, Yang Fan, Zhang Hongyan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  242-248.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023308
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    Objective This study aimed to observe the outcomes of iRoot BP Plus full pulpotomy in primary molars with partial irreversible pulpitis retrospectively. Methods Collect 102 cases of primary molars with partial irreversible pulpitis undergoing iRoot BP Plus full pulpotomy from January 2019 to August 2023, with a follow-up period of 24-47 months. Based on the presence of irreversible pulpitis symptoms before surgery, the included cases will be divided into asymptomatic group (n=53) and symptomatic group (n=49). Observe the clinical and imaging success rates of both groups. Results Clinical success rates were 96.2% and 97.9% in asymptomatic and symptomatic groups, and radiographic success rates were 96.2% and 93.9% respectively. Conclusion iRoot BP Plus full pulpotomy can be used for the treatment of primary molars with partial irreversible pulpitis under an enhanced pulpotomy protocol.

    One case of complicated crown root fracture of upper anterior teeth managed by multidisciplinary joint approaches
    Zhang Baize, Chen Yujiang, Wang Junhui, Liu Jiajia, Wu Li’an
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  249-255.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023342
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    Complicated crown root fracture is a serious combined fracture of the enamel, dentin, and cementum in dental trauma. The treatment method is complicated. During the procedure, the condition of pulp, periodontal, and tooth body should be thoroughly evaluated, and a multidisciplinary approach combined with sequential treatment is recommended. This case reported the different treatment and repair processes of one case of two affected teeth after complicated crown root fracture of upper anterior teeth, including regrafting of broken crown after flap surgery at the first visit, direct resin repair to remove broken fragments, and pulp treatment and post-crown repair at the second visit. After 18 months of follow-up, the preservation treatment of the affected teeth with complicated crown root fracture was achieved. Therefore, fragment reattachment and post-crown restoration are feasible treatment options for children with complicated crown root fracture.

    Gingival diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: report of 2 cases
    Li Guoli, Lou Jing, Tan Na, Zheng Hong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  256-261.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023240
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    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the oral gums is very rare and is prone to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. In this paper, 2 cases of oral gingival DLBCL were reported. Their clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis were discussed based on the literature of 21 cases of gingival DLBCL reported at home and abroad from 2008 to 2023.

    Chinese surgical robot-assisted surgery for parotid tumor: a case report
    Zhu Guiquan, Ma Zhongkai, Cao Chang, He Jialu, Hong Jiawei, Ren Ruiting, Xia Hui, Yan Bing, Wang Xiaoyi, Li Long-jiang, Li Chunjie
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  262-267.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023393
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    Robotic surgery is known as the “third technological revolution” in the field of surgery, and is an important milestone in the development of modern surgery. However, our country’s innovative surgical robot industry is still in its early stages, and it is only being utilized in certain surgical fields. To explore the effectiveness of the application of domestic surgical robot in oral and maxillofacial surgery, the author successfully completed a case of benign parotid tumor resection with the assistance of a domestic autonomous robot. The operation was successful, facial nerve function was preserved, and postoperative wound healing was good.

    Effect of the application of digital technology-assisted optimization in the process of adjusting jaw position
    Gong Yanji, Liu Yang, Yin Deqiang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2024, 42(2):  268-276.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2024.2023327
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    Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel jaw position adjustment technique derived from digital twins and evaluate the application effect of digital technology-assisted optimization in the process of adjusting jaw position on patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Methods A total of 74 patients with TMD who attended the Department of Temporomandibular Joint, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Si-chuan University, between June 2022 and May 2023 were selected. The patient’s initial computed tomography (CT) and bilateral temporomandibular joint data obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. The 148 joints were divided into the normal disc-condyle relationship (N) group, disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) group, and disc displacement without reduction (DDWoR) group. Assisted by digital technology, the patient’s CT data were reconstructed, and a personalized reference plane was established to adjust the jaw position. A three-point bite guiding splint was designed by the adjusted occlusal space and then fabricated by 3D printing technology. It was worn by the patients and then reviewed by MRI. Before and after the adjustment of jaw position, the amount and direction of condyle and disc displacement and the angle between condyle and disc were measured as the evaluation indexes of the effect of the adjustment. The correlation with condylar displacement was evaluated. Results In the N group, the disc moved backward and downward along the X and Z axes by (-0.60±0.62) and (0.51±0.71) mm, respectively. In the DDWR group, the disc moved backward and upward along the X and Z axes by (-1.33±1.38) and (-0.09±1.31) mm, respectively. In the DDWoR group, the disc moved forward and downward along the X and Z axes by (0.49±1.76) and (1.35±1.76) mm, respectively. The angle between the condyle and the disc decreased after adjustment of the jaw position in all three groups. All patients showed improvement in symptoms after adjustment. Conclusion Digital technology-assisted jaw position adjustment can simplify the process, reduce the sensitivity of the technique, and improve patients’ disc-condyle structure and symptoms. Therefore, its application in the treatment of patients with TMD is of great clinical significance.

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