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Table of Content
01 August 2020, Volume 38 Issue 4
  • Several important issues concerning occlusal reconstruction
    Liu Yang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  357-363.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.001
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    Occlusal reconstruction aims to restore the compromised dentition and rehabilitate its function; which is demanding and challenging, even to the well experienced prosthodontists. Analyzing the sophisticate clinical information gives fundamental validity to the subsequent treatment planning. In the whole process, the applied workflow should ensure the transmission of diagnostic information without compromise or error. Certain procedures predetermine the clinical outcome, and they should be given due attention. In this review, the key considerations, including analyzing the pathogenesis for the worn dentition, were briefly addressed to better understand the occlusal reconstruction.

    Association between platelet-derived growth factor-C single nucleotide polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Western Chinese population
    Zhou Yulan, Zhu Wenchao, Shi Bing, Jia Zhonglin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  364-370.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.002
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    Objective To explore the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs4691383 and rs7667857, in the platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) gene, the genotypes, environmental exposure factors, and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in Western Chinese population. Methods A total of 268 case—parent trios were selected, and two SNPs (rs4691383 andrs7667857) were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphic method and direct sequencing method. Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium test, transmission disequilibrium test, and haplotype analysis were conducted to analyze the data. Meanwhile, the questionnaires on the epidemiology of cleft lip and palate filled by the included samples were collected, and the interaction between the genotypes of the two SNPs and environmental exposure factors was assessed by conditional logistic regression. Results The A allele at rs4691383 and the G allele at rs7667857 of PDGF-C gene were over-transmitted for NSCL/P (P<0.05). No interaction effect was observed between the three environmental exposure factors (history of smoking/passive smoking, folic acid supplementation, and long-term inhalation of harmful environmental gases) and the PDGF-C genotypes among NSCL/P (P>0.05). Conclusion The rs4691383 and rs7667857 at PDGF-C gene are closely related to the occurrence of NSCL/P in Western Chinese population. However, the interaction between environmental exposure factors and PDGF-C genotypes is not obvious in the occurrence of NSCL/P.

    Prognostic value of plasma miR-1290 expression in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Chen Xiumin, Liu Zuzhi, Lin Jianneng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  371-375.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.003
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    Objective To investigate the prognostic value of plasma miR-1290 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods Seventy patients with OSCC admitted to Danzhou People’s Hospital from January 2014 to December 2018 were included in this study. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-1290 in these patients. The optimal cut-off value of plasma miR-1290 expression was determined by the ROC curve method, and patients with OSCC were divided into the high (n=31) and low (n=39) miR-1290-expressing groups. The clinicopathological features of the two groups were compared, and survival curves were drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors affecting the poor prognosis of patients were analyzed using univariate and multivariate COX regression models. Results The expression level of plasma miR-1290 in the OSCC group was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.65±0.14 vs. 2.06±0.90; t=13.912, P<0.001). The low expression of plasma miR-1290 appeared to be related to the clinical stage, differentiation degree, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis of OSCC (P<0.05). Survival analysis showed that the overall survival rate and the progression-free survival rate of the low-miR-1290 group were significantly lower than that of the high-miR-1290 group (P<0.01). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and plasma miR-1290<1.14 were independent risk factors for the poor prognosis of patients with OSCC (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression level of plasma miR-1290 in patients with OSCC significantly decreased, and the low expression of miR-1290 is related to the short survival time of OSCC patients. Thus, miR-1290 may be a potential marker predicting the poor prognosis of OSCC.

    Effects of adhesive and primer on the bonding strength of zirconia to resin cement
    Yin Zhun, Zhan Desong, Fu Jiale
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  376-379.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.004
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    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of water storage treatment and thermal cycling on the shear bond strength (SBS) of three self-adhesive dual-cure resin cements. Methods Six cubic zirconia specimens with side length of 2 cm were obtained by cutting and sintering. Three self-adhering dual-cure resin cements (i.e., Clearfil SAC, RelyX U200, and Multilink Speed) were selected. According to their bonding modes, they were divided into three groups: direct bonding group (direct coating with resin cement), adhesive group (applying universal adhesives and then coating with resin cement), and primer group (applying Z-Prime Plus and then coating with resin cement). According to experimental conditions, each group was divided into two subgroups: subgroup a (water storage at 37 ℃ for 24 h) and subgroup b (thermalcycling for 5 000 times). SBS data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA by using SPSS 19.0 software (P<0.05). The fractured zirconia surface was observed under a stereomicroscope. Results After water storage for 24 h, the SBS of the adhesive group and the primer group of the three resin cements was higher than that of the direct adhesive group (P<0.05), but the difference in SBS between the adhesive group and the primer group was not significant (P>0.05). After thermalcycling, the SBS of the three types of resin cements decreased (P<0.05); the SBS of the adhesive group was higher than that of the direct adhesive group and the primer group (P<0.05). Fracture mode analysis revealed that the type Ⅲ fracture mode evidently increased after the thermalcycling treatment compared with the water storage treatment. Conclusion The universal adhesives and the primer can improve the SBS of self-adhesive dual-cure resin cement in water storage at 37 ℃ for 24 h. The universal adhesives had a better bonding durability than the zirconia primer.

    Application of a modified paramedian lower lip-submandibular approach in maxillary (subtotal) total resection
    Tang Mengying, Luo Daowen, Sun Libo, Zhou Hangyu, Wu Shuangjiang, Fu Guangxin, Xiao Jingang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  380-384.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.005
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    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of a modified paramedian lower lip-submandibular approach for maxillary (subtotal) total resection. Methods Eleven patients of maxillary tumors underwent maxillary (subtotal) total resection through the modified paramedian lower lip-submandibular approach. Clinical follow-up visits were conducted to evaluate appearance restoration, facial nerve functional status, parotid gland functional status, and orbital region complication. Results During the follow-up period of 6-36 months, the appearance of all 11 patients recovered well. All cases presented hidden scars. No facial nerve and parotid duct injury, lower eyelid edema, lower eyelid ectropion, or epiphora in all cases was observed. Conclusion Applying modified paramedian lower lip-submandibular approach to maxillary (subtotal) total resection effectively reduces incidence of orbital region complications including lower eyelid edema, lower eyelid ectropion, and epiphora, which often occur to traditional approach. The modified approach produces more subtle scars than other methods and should be applied to treatment of maxillary (subtotal) total resection.

    Effect of scaling and root planing on serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
    Chang Yaqin, Fang Fangfang, Qin Shasha, Dong Yingchun, Chen Bin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  385-392.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.006
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    Objective To evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. Methods We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases from the inception to July 8th, 2019. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and evaluated the bias risk of included studies. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results A total of 13 randomized controlled clinical trials and 12 prospective clinical trials were included. Meta-analysis showed that serum CRP levels decreased at 2 and 3 months after SRP (P<0.05), and no significant difference in serum CRP levels was found at 6 months (P=0.49). Conclusion SRP can reduce serum CRP levels in systematically healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis at 2 and 3 months after SRP.

    Efficacy of periodontal endoscope-assisted non-surgical treatment for severe and generalized periodontitis
    Shi Jiahong, Xia Jiaojiao, Lei Lang, Jiang Sheng, Gong Hongchun, Zhang Ye, Cheng Yan, Li Houxuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  393-397.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.007
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    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of periodontal endoscope as an adjuvant therapy for the non-surgical periodontal treatment of patients with severe and generalized periodontitis. Methods Patients (n=13) were divided into three groups: patients treated with conventional subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP) (n=7, 408 sites) (group A), SRP using periodontal endoscope (n=4, 188 sites) (group B) or SRP with periodontal endoscope 3 months after initial SRP (n=2, 142 sites) (group C). Two subgroups were divided into 2 subgroups according to PD at the baseline: 4<PD≤6 mm as subgroup 1 and PD>6 mm as subgroup 2. Probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), gingival recession (GR) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Results The results of 3 months after treatment showed all PD, AL, and GR values in group A1 were less than those in group B1 (P<0.05), but no significant difference in BOP was found between the two groups. The decrease in PD, BOP in group B2 was more obvious than those in group A2 (P<0.000 1), and the GR values in group B2 were more than those in group A2 (P<0.000 1). But the improvement of AL showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P=0.296 8). In group C1, no significant difference in PD, AL, and GR was observed after endoscopy-assisted therapy, but it was more effective for BOP (P<0.000 1). In group C2, the improvement in PD and AL was significantly different from the improvement in SRP alone (P=0.000 5, P=0.000 2) and was accompanied by more GR (P=0.000 5). Conclusion In non-surgical treatment of severe and generalized periodontitis, SRP can achieve good therapeutic effect on sites with 4<PD≤6 mm. For sites with PD>6 mm, the application of periodontal endoscopy can increase the effect, reducing PD and GR, which may be an effective supplement to the current non-surgical periodontal treatment.

    Relationships among the periodontal biotype characteristics in the maxillary anterior
    Yuan Jie, Guo Qianqian, Li Qi, Sui Yanjun, Jiang Baoqi
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  398-403.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.008
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    Objective To explore the correlation among gingival thickness (GT), underlying alveolar bone thickness (BT), and other periodontal biotype characteristics in the maxillary anterior. Methods A total of 40 young volunteers with healthy periodontal were involved in this research. The periodontal probe was previously used to divide the gingiva from thick to thin. Two records were measured by cone beam CT (CBCT) GT, which was measured at the cement-enamel junction level; and BT, which was measured at 3 locations: 1, 3, 5 mm below the alveolar crest. Oral and gypsum measurements were used to analyze the associations of the crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL), the keratinized mucosa width (KM), and the free gingival margin curvature. Results Significant difference in the GT was observed between the thick and thin biotypes, which were divided by periodontal probe (P<0.01). Difference was observed in each periodontal biotype characteristic between the thick (GT≥1 mm) and thin biotypes (GT<1 mm) (P<0.05). BT was positively associated with GT (r=0.293, P=0.001), CW/CL (r=0.273, P=0.003), KM (r=0.291, P=0.001), and free gingival margin curvature (r=0.290, P=0.001). Conclusion The transparency of the probing in the sulcus could analyze the GT qualitatively. The thick and thin biotypes have different periodontal biotype characteristics. Compared with individuals with thick biotype, those with thin biotype are susceptible to risk dental aesthetic.

    Comparison of the accuracy of three methods for determining maxillomandibular horizontal relationship of the complete denture
    Yang Liyuan, Liu Guanyi, Zhao Ling, Gao Xu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  404-409.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.009
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    Objective To observe the changes of forward displacement of maxillary complete denture during centric occlusion, three different methods were used to record the changes of vertical overlap and the comfort level of patients before and after the selective grinding of the three dentures made according to maxillo-mandibular horizontal relationship record. Methods Twelve edentulous patients with normal stomatognathic system were recruited in this study. Three types of complete dentures for these 12 edentulous patients were made according to their different maxilla-mandibular horizontal relationship record methods. The amount of displacement of the maxillary complete denture, the vertical overlap of the anterior teeth as well as patient comfort level were recorded before and after selective grinding. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 17.0 software package. Results Before selective grinding, the amount of displacement of denture A was significantly larger than those of dentures B and C (P<0.05). After selective grinding, there was no statistical difference among the three dentures (P>0.05). During selective grinding, the vertical overlap variation of denture A was significantly greater than those of dentures B and C (P<0.05). Before selective grinding, the comfort level of the denture A was the lowest (P<0.05), and no statistical difference was found between dentures B and C (P>0.05). After selective grinding, no statistical difference was found among the three dentures (P>0.05). Conclusion Among the complete dentures with anatomical teeth, the dentures whose horizontal relationship was recorded at 1 mm before the apex of the Gothic arch apex and with checkbite are more in line with clinical repair requirements. Complete dentures whose horizontal relationship was recorded at the apex of Gothic arch need to be adjusted with selective grinding to meet the clinical restoration requirements.

    Qualitative study on the cognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome occupational protection among the managers of multi-level stomatology medical institutions
    Shi Yongle, Zhao Xiaoxi, Liu Fan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  410-414.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.010
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    Objective To understand the current cognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occupational protection among the managers of multi-level stomatology medical institutions in efforts to provide a reference for formulating technical standards for occupational protection. Methods Eighteen managers of oral medical institutions were individually interviewed in-depth using asemi-structured questionnaire on issues related to AIDS occupational protection using the phenomenological research method. Nvivo 12.0 software was used to code and analyze the interview data, and relevant themes were extracted. Results Three themes were extracted from the data. Occupational protection measures for AIDS in dental medical institutions mainly based on the aspects of standardized operation, standardized prevention, and post-exposure treatment. However, the implementation of these protective measures was often inadequate. Occupational protection training for AIDS was carried out regularly at dental medical institutions, but the training effect was not generally tracked. Several limitations in AIDS occupational protection management; these limitations included the lack of a specific occupational protection system, the difficulty of AIDS screening for outpatients, and the difficulty of AIDS occupational protection supervision. Conclusion Oral medical institutions should strengthen their occupational protection training and supervision approaches and formulate unified occupational protection standards to reduce occupational exposure and improve hospital management quality and efficiency.

    Experimental study on the feasibility of low-dose cone beam computed tomography scanning
    Shi Xiong, Li Shengjiao, Zhou Jianping, Zhang Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  415-418.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.011
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    Objective The effects of different tube currents and voltages on image quality and radiation dose were studied to provide a theoretical basis for low-dose cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning in children. Methods Different tube currents and voltages were used to scan the incisor area of fresh Bama pig heads by CBCT. The radiation dose was recorded, and image quality was evaluated. Results As the tube current or voltage decreased, the radiation dose and image quality gradually decreased. The computed tomographic dose index (CTDIvol) of 90 kV, 2.5 mA and 60 kV, 7.0 mA were all 1.7 mGy. The image quality score of the former was higher than that of the latter, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Low-dose CBCT scanning appears to be able to reduce the necessary tube current during imaging by improving image quality.

    Morphological change analysis based on cone beam CT of the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients treated with oral appliance in skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion with different vertical patterns
    Guo Biao, Lu Rongjian
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  419-424.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.012
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    Objective To analyze the morphological changes in the upper airway of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients treated with oral appliance in skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion with different vertical features by using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods Thirty-six patients diagnosed with OSAS by polysomnography and daytime sleepiness scale and skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion were treated with oral appliance for 4 months. The changes based on CBCT in the morphology of glossopharyngeal and palatopharyngeal before and after treatment in OSAS patients with different vertical features were compared. Results After treatment with oral appliance, the glossopharyngeal and palatopharyngeal morphologies of patients with mild OSAS showed significant changes. After treatment with oral appliance, the glossopharyngeal morphology of all patients showed significant changes (P<0.05). The palatopharyngeal morphology of patients in the lower and average groups also exhibited significant changes (P<0.05). Sagittal changes in the glossopharyngeal measurements of high-angle patients demonstrated significant difference, whereas the other measured values showed no significant difference. Conclusion The morphological changes in the upper airway were significant in OSAS patients with lower and average vertical patterns when treated with oral appliance, but the changes in high vertical patterns were not significant.

    Research progress on circular RNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Lei Kexin, Bai Hetian, Yang Songyue, Li Jing, Chen Qianming
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  425-430.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.013
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    Circular RNA, a non-coding RNA that forms a covalently closed continuous loop, exists widely in eukaryotic cells. The biogenesis and biological function of this type of RNA indicate that it can play a crucial role in diseases such as tumors, neural system diseases, and cardiovascular diseases; moreover, this RNA may have great potential use as a biomarker in these diseases. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy in oral surgery that is difficult to cure, metastasizes easily, and has poor prognosis. In this review, we summarize the loop-forming mechanisms and functions of circular RNA and describe the progress of current research in the development of oral cancer.

    Research progress of Candida albicans on malignant transformation of oral mucosal diseases
    Liao Min, Cheng Lei, Zhou Xuedong, Ren Biao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  431-437.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.014
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    Oral cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck, and is one of the world’s top ten malignancies. Microbial infection is an important risk factor of oral cancer. Candida albicans is the most popular opportunistic fungal pathogen. Epidemiological studies have shown that Candida albicans is closely tied to oral malignancy. Animal experimentation have also proven that infection of Candida albicans can promote the development of oral epithelial carcinogenesis. The current studies have revealed several mechanisms involved in this process, including destroying the epithelial barrier, producing carcinogenic substances (nitrosamines, acetaldehyde), inducing chronic inflammation, activating immune response, etc. However, current researches on mechanisms are still inadequate, and some hypotheses remain controversial. Here, we review the findings related to Candida albicans’ effect on the malignant transformation of oral mucosa, hoping to provide reference for deep research and controlling oral cancer clinically.

    Effects of various surface treatments on the bonding efficacy of noncarious cervical sclerotic lesions
    Yu Danhua, Jia Lingling, Li Jiyao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  438-442.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.015
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    Noncarious cervical sclerotic lesions (NCSL) are dental cervical lesions with noncarious sclerotic dentine (NCSD), which appears smooth, hard, and either light yellow or dark brown. Most NCSLs are wedge or dish shaped and commonly occur in canines and premolars, leading to dental hypersensitivity and aesthetic defect. The principal treatment is composite resin restoration; however, many clinical problems, such as retention loss, should not be ignored. NCSL’s bonding interface includes NCSD and enamel, and interface pre-treatment can promote the bonding effect. This review summarizes current surface treatment methods and their influence on the bonding effectiveness of NCSL to provide guidance for clinical practice.

    Diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia in newborns and infants
    Ji Yuezhi, Ruan Wenhua
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  443-448.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.016
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    Ankyloglossia is a congenital condition characterized by a short lingual frenulum, which may result in the restriction of tongue movement and function. Considerable controversy regarding the diagnosis, clinical significance, and management of the condition remains, and great variations in practice have been recorded. Indeed, attitudes toward ankyloglossia differ among professional groups, and opinions may vary remarkably even among those within the same specialty. This article reviews the embryology, genetics, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of ankyloglossia to help physicians better understand and treat the condition.

    Development of programmed death receptor-1 and programmed death receptor-1 ligand in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Chen Zhihong, Wu Yadong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  449-453.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.017
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    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor in the oral and maxillofacial region. At present, the treatment of OSCC is mainly based on surgical oriented comprehensive sequence therapy, especially the triple therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, the overall five-year survival rate is relatively low. Therefore, researching the pathogenesis and treatment methods of OSCC is important. The immune checkpoint of programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor-1 ligand (PD-L1) have been the focus of research in recent years. Several studies have shown that the high expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in most OSCC microenvironments may contribute to the immune escape of tumors. In this study, the research status of immune checkpoint of PD-1/PD-L1 and its relevant inhibitors in OSCC were reviewed.

    Mutations of the ELANE gene cause severe congenital neutropenia with periodontal disease: a case report
    Chen Yang, Wang Yan, Zhang Qiong, Zhang Yueming, Zou Jing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  454-459.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.018
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    Severe congenital neutropenia is a rare disorder characterized by a consistently low absolute neutrophil count and periodontal disease. This report describes the case of an ELANE mutationin a patient with gingival bleeding and tooth mobility. Oral examination showed active periodontal infection of the primary dentition accompanied by alveolar bone loss in the posterior region. The patient was diagnosed with severe congenital neutropenia 1 year after multidisciplinary consultation. Treatment of the systemic disease and effective oral health education over a 3-year follow-up period relieved the periodontal infection and created favorable conditions for future repair.

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw caused by implant: a case report
    Wu Pingfan, Li Yu, Lei Zhenge, Chen Linlin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  460-463.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.019
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    Osteonecrosis of the jaw could occur after intake of bisphosphonate drugs, which are widely used to treat osteoporosis and bone metastasis of malignant tumors. This effect has aroused concern among dentists. In this paper, a case of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis caused by implant is reported, and the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bisphosphonate drug-induced osteonecrosis are described through a literature review. The effects of bisphosphonate drug treatment on dental implants are also discussed.

    Effect of decompression combined with curettage and autogenous bone cement implantation on large cysts of the jaw
    Liu Yixiu, Qu Yang, Li Zhenhua, Wang Hongpeng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  464-469.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.020
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    Decompression and curettage can result are effective as treatments for large jaw cysts, which are common diseases in the clinic. Based on a treatment used in a previous study, this paper proposes a “three-step method” to treat large jaw cyst and repair the bone defect by decompression, curettage, and autologous dental bone powder implantation. This paper introduces the processes and key points of the operation involved in the abovementioned method.

    Application of mixed reality in oromaxillofacial head and neck oncology surgery: a preliminary study
    Guo Zhiyong, Ding Zhangfan, Miao Cheng, Li Chunjie, Tang Xiufa, Zhang Zhuang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  470-474.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.021
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    Mixed reality (MR), characterized by the ability to integrate digital data into human real feeling, is a new technique in medical imaging and surgical navigation. MR has tremendous value in surgery, but its application in oromaxillofacial head and neck oncology surgery is not yet reported. This paper reports the application of MR in oromaxillofacial head and neck oncology surgery. The merits, demerits, and present research situations and prospects of MR are further discussed.

    A technique to design the framework of removable partial denture by multi-stage expert system
    Chen Xin, Mao Bochun, Xie Chenyang, Zhang Qianqian, Sun Jikui, Yue Li, Yu Haiyang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(4):  475-478.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.04.022
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    This study aims to apply a new expert system to design removable partial denture (RPD) framework. The RPD design is completed in three steps, namely, “selecting missing teeth”, “selecting abutment condition”, and “selecting personalized clasp”. The system can help auxiliary dentists develop personalized treatment plans to reduce their clinical workload. It can also generate a dental preparation guideline for clinical preparation, which can prevent tooth preparation mistakes. By generating the standard electronic drawings of the framework design, the system can reduce the inconvenience caused by manual drawing, thereby facilitating dentist-technician communication and reducing the rate of remade.