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Table of Content
01 June 2020, Volume 38 Issue 3
  • Factors influencing clinical application of bulk-fill composite resin
    Xue Jing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  233-239.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.001
    Abstract ( 3725 )   HTML ( 610 )   PDF(pc) (769KB) ( 5356 )   Save
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    Bulk-fill composite resin are simple to operate, and they reduce polymerization shrinkage and microleakage compare to traditional resin-based composites. However, their clinical application could be affected by numerous factors, such as the material itself, light curing, placement techniques, storage condition, and preheating. This review aimed to summarize the definitions, classifications, indications, clinical properties, and influencing factors of the clinical application of bulk-fill resin-based composites and discuss the ways to improve their clinical effectiveness.

    Chondrocyte cocultures with stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue promote cartilage regeneration in vivo
    Ba Kai, Ni Duan, Wang Xinbo, Wei Xueqin, Li Na, Zheng Lian
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  240-244.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.002
    Abstract ( 816 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF(pc) (2030KB) ( 486 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to compare the cartilage regeneration of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) cocultured with chondrocytes seeded on the scaffolds. Methods The cellular morphologies and proliferation capabilities on the scaffolds were evaluated. The scaffolds with the coculture of ASCs/SVF and chondrocytes were implanted into the full thickness cartilage defective rabbit joints for 10 weeks. Results The cells seeded into the scaffolds showed good adhesion and proliferation. Implantation with SVF and chondrocytes revealed desirable in vitro healing outcomes. Conclusion The SVF cells were better than ASCs in terms of the formation of cartilage matrix in a coimplantation model. Without in vitro expansion, the SVF cells are good cell sources for cartilage repair.

    Effects of RAB1A on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells
    Sun Xuehui, Fan Xin, Hu Kaili, Hu Wenting
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  245-249.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.003
    Abstract ( 787 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF(pc) (1722KB) ( 393 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of RAB1A in the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Western blot was used to detect the expression of RAB1A protein in human normal tongue epithelial cells (Hacat) and tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113. The changes in RAB1A after plasmid transfection were also studied. The Tca8113 cells were named SiRAB1A/Tca8113 after RAB1A plasmid transfection. The expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers of SiRAB1A/Tca8113 cells was also detected. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the proliferation of SiRAB1A/Tca8113 cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to detect the invasive and metastatic abilities of SiRAB1A/Tca8113 cells, respectively. Results Western blot results showed that the expression of RAB1A in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells was significantly higher than that in Hacat. RAB1A decreased significantly after SiRAB1A plasmid transfection. CCK-8 proliferation assay showed that the proliferation of SiRAB1A/Tca8113 cells also decreased significantly. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that the invasive and metastatic abilities of SiRAB1A/Tca8113 cells decreased significantly, respectively. In addition, Western blot results demonstrated that RAB1A deletion significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and inhibited the expression of Vimentin. Conclusion RAB1A could promote the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Differences of B cells, plasma cells, and related cytokines expression in gingival tissues between periodontitis and periodontal healthy subjects
    Ouyang Yuling, Chen Sheng, Chen Bin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  250-255.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.004
    Abstract ( 1320 )   HTML ( 79 )   PDF(pc) (3130KB) ( 934 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to compare the differences of B cells, plasma cells, and related cytokines expression in gingival tissues between periodontitis and periodontal healthy subjects. Methods Gingival tissues were collected from periodontal healthy subjects (periodontal healthy group, n=12) and periodontitis patients (periodontitis group, n=15). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used for histopathological examination. Immunohistochemical staining (CD19, CD38, and CD138) was applied to detect the expression of B cells and plasma cells. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration was found in the gingival tissues of the periodontitis group. The number of CD19(+), CD38(+), and CD138(+) cells of the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that of the periodontal healthy group (P<0.000 1). BAFF and sRANKL levels of the periodontitis group were higher than those of the periodontal healthy group (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The expression of B cells, plasma cells, and their related BAFF and sRANKL cytokines were significantly higher in periodontitis patients than those in the periodontal healthy subjects, suggesting that B cells and plasma cells may be involved in the development of periodontitis.

    Development of novel self-adhesive resin cement with antibacterial and self-healing properties
    Hu Ge, Zhang Xinyan, Zhao Jiaxin, Zhou Chuanjian, Wu Junling
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  256-262.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.005
    Abstract ( 856 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF(pc) (844KB) ( 510 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to develop novel self-adhesive resin cement with antibacterial and self-healing properties. Furthermore, the dentin bonding strength, mechanical properties, self-healing efficiency, and antibacterial property of the developed cement were measured. Methods Novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers that contain quaternary ammonium salts with long-chain alkyls were synthesized. These fillers were added into self-adhesive resin cement containing self-healing microcapsules at mass fractions of 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, or 10.0%. The dentin shear bonding test was used to test the bonding strength, whereas the flexural test was used to measure the flexural strength and elastic modulus of the cement. The single-edge V-notched beam method was used to measure self-healing efficiency, and human dental plaque microcosm biofilms were chosen to calculate the antibacterial property. Results The dentin shear bond strength significantly decreased when the mass fraction of the nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers in the novel cement reached 7.5% (P<0.05). The incorporation of 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, or 10.0% mass fraction of nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers did not adversely affect the flexural strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and self-healing efficiency of the cement (P>0.1). Resin cement containing 2.5% mass fraction or more nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers significantly inhibited the metabolic activity of dental plaque microcosm biofilms, indicating strong antibacterial potency (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel self-adhesive resin cement exhibited promising antibacterial and self-healing properties, which enable the cement to be used for dental applications.

    Influence of preparation height and cement space on the fit and retention of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing zirconia crown
    Xi Shuang, Wu Zixiao, Gao Cuicui, Meng Yuchen, Pei Dandan, Lu Yi
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  263-269.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.006
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    Objective To investigate the effects of preparation height and cement space on the fit and retention of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer aided manufacturing (CAM) zirconia crown, and to provide reference for the clinical design and fabrication of CAD/CAM crowns. Methods 3D printing system was used to fabricate resin abutment teeth with convergence angle of 2° and height of 1-3 mm. The models’ optical impressions were collected by the three-shape scanner. Then, the cement spaces were set by Cradle CAD/CAM system at 10-50 μm to create an all-ceramic zirconia crown. The fit of the crowns was measured by using silicone rubber interstitial impression method. The retention of the crowns was measured by pull-off test with uniaxial tensile force after the crown was bonded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22.0 software. Results When the preparation height was fixed, the fitness values of different cement space groups have statistical difference (P<0.05), whereas the retention values of different cement space groups have no statistical difference (P>0.05). The fitness values of different preparation height groups have no statistical difference (P>0.05), and the retention values of different preparation height groups have statistical difference (P<0.05) when the cement space was fixed. No interaction was observed between the cement space and the preparation height (P>0.05). Conclusion When cradle CAD/CAM system is used to create a full crown in the clinic, the preparation height should be set to more than 3 mm, and the cement space should be set at 30 μm.

    Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in assessing maxillary molar furcation involvement
    Zhao Haiyan, Wang Nan, Ding Yi, Zheng Haiying, Qian Junrong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  270-273.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.007
    Abstract ( 1171 )   HTML ( 101 )   PDF(pc) (786KB) ( 1084 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to assess the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting furcation involvement (FI) in maxillary molars. Methods Thirty-one maxillary molars of 15 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis considered for furcation surgery were assessed. Clinical examination and CBCT were performed, and the FI degree was evaluated. Clinical and CBCT-based FI assessments were compared with intrasurgical data. Results The agreement between clinical and intrasurgical assessments was weak in all sites, with a kappa of less than 0.4; the complete, overestimated, and underestimated agreement percentages were 42.0%, 24.7%, and 33.3%, respectively. The agreement between the CBCT and intrasurgical assessments was strong, with a kappa of 0.831; the complete, overestimated, and underestimated agreement percentages were 88.2%, 3.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. The agreement between both assessments was the highest in the buccal furcation entrance (κ=0.896), followed by that in the distopalatal (κ=0.822) and mesiopalatal (κ=0.767) furcation entrances. Conclusion CBCT images demonstrated high accuracy in assessing the horizontal bone loss of FI in maxillary molars.

    Three-dimensional analysis of the mandible with impacted mandibular second molar
    Fan Wei, Gao Deguo, Wang Yuting, Li Dandan, Wang Zhendong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  274-279.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.008
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    Objective To study the developmental and morphological characteristics of the mandible in patients with impacted mandibular second molar and to predict the possible trend of mandibular development via three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis. Methods A total of 88 cases of impacted group and 88 cases of control group were screened out. 3D measurements were performed by using Mimics software. A total of 23 landmark points and 17 measurements were determined. The measurements were analyzed by t-test. Results The mandible length, the space between the first molars, the space between mandibular angles, and the width between the first molars in the impacted group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the value of the submandibular angle was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The impacted mandible of patients with mandibular second molar showed lack of sagittal and width development, and the impacted mandibular second molar was a manifestation of its degeneration.

    Influence of mandibulotomy approaches on oral function following radical resection of tongue carcinoma
    Wu Jianjun, Gao Xing, Wang Wenjin, Aly Gomaa, Chen Jie, Hu Yaqin, Jian Xinchun, Jiang Canhua
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  280-283.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.009
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    Objective This study aimed to compare the influences of postoperative oral function in patients with median or paramedian mandibulotomy during the radical resection of tongue carcinoma and to provide evidence for the choice of osteotomy location for mandibulotomy. Methods The clinical data of 126 patients who underwent combined radical neck dissection with mandibulectomy and glossectomy followed by simultaneous reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the position of mandibulotomy: median mandibulotomy group (median group, n=60) and paramedian mandibulotomy group (paramedian group, n=66). The fourth edition of the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL) was used to compare the differences in oral functions, such as swallowing, mastication, and speech, between the two groups during regular follow-up. SPSS 24.0 software package was used for statistical analysis, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Six months after the operation, no significant differences in swallowing, mastication, and speech functions were found between the median and paramedian groups. However, the swallowing and speech functions in the paramedian group were better than those in the median group 1 year after the operation (P<0.05), whereas no statistical difference in mastication function was observed between the two groups. Conclusion Evaluation of the postoperative oral function results showed that paramedian mandibulotomy was a better surgical approach than median mandibulotomy. Paramedian mandibulotomy is worth prioritizing in the radical resection of tongue carcinoma.

    Investigation of postoperative complications in children after dental therapy under general anesthesia
    Deng Xiaoyu, Zhang Yunhan, Zou Jing, Zhang Qiong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  284-289.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.010
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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative complications undergoing dental general anesthesia in children and analyze the prevalence and related factors. Methods This prospective study involved 292 systematically healthy children (36 to 71 months old) who received extensive dental treatment under general anesthesia. Data about patients’ histories, characteristics, dental and anesthesia procedure were collected. Parents or caregivers were interviewed face to face preoperation and 72 h postoperation. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Approximately 93.5% of the enrolled children reported one or more complications. The most prevalent complication was postoperative pain, followed by weariness, agitation, problem in eating, drowsiness, oral bleeding, cough, fever, etc. The length of operative time and femininity were the risks of the postoperative pain. Nutrition status was the factor probably in association with fever. Conclusion The children receive longer operative time and girls show to be more susceptible to the postoperative pain. High nutrition status could be the protective factor of postoperative fever.

    Efficacy of clarithromycin in the adjuvant treatment of chronic periodontitis: a Meta-analysis
    Bai Yin, Bai Yuanliang, Lai Jing, Huang Jiao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  290-296.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.011
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    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of clarithromycin (CLM) in the adjuvant treatment of chronic periodontitis systematically, obtain reasonable conclusions through evidence-based medicine, and provide guidance for clinical rational drug use. Methods Literature about CLM in the adjuvant treatment of chronic periodontitis was searched in CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase databases from inception to February 2019 using a computer. Meta-analysis was performed on the homogeneous study using RevMan 5.3 software after two independent reviewers screened the literature, evaluated the quality of the study, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies. Results Six randomized controlled trials were included in 316 subjects. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the scaling and root planning (SRP) group, the probing depth (PD) was reduced in patients with CLM and SRP [MD=-1.00, 95%CI (-1.55, -0.45), P=0.000 04]. Clinical attachment loss was obtained [MD=-0.03, 95%CI (0.43, 0.65), P<0.000 01], and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) was reduced [MD=-0.01, 95%CI (-0.14, 0.19), P=0.66]. No significant difference was observed between the groups, but the decrease in mSBI was more significant in CLM combined with SRP group. Conclusion CLM combined with subgingival SRP can achieve remarkable results in treating chronic periodontitist.

    Improvement program on pretreatment of acid decalcified tissue in hematoxylin-eosin staining
    Yao Lihong, Zhang Mei, Huang Meichang, Wan Zixin, Zhang Weilong, Yang Xiao, Yang Mingzhong, Chen Yu, Tang Yaling
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  297-300.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.012
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    Objective To explore the treatment conditions of acid decalcified specimens and improve the poor quality of sections and unclear structure of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining caused by the change in pH in tooth and hard tissue after acid decalcification. Methods A total of 20 cases of oral pathological specimens that contain hard tissues were decalcified and treated with routine treatment, concentrated ammonia water immersion treatment, and saturated lithium carbonate solution immersion treatment. The quality and HE staining effects of hard tissue sections treated with different methods were compared. Results Compared with routine treatment, lithium carbonate saturated solution treatment showed complete sections. Hematoxylin is strongly stained, the nucleus is clear, and the cytoplasm is bright. Conclusion Soaking acid decalcified specimens in lithium carbonate saturated solution before embedding in dehydration can neutralize the acidic environment of the tissue. The quality of sections and HE staining effect are improved and are suitable for the pretreatment of acid decalcified tissue samples of oral pathology.

    Therapeutic effect analysis of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion treatment by transmission straight wire technique
    Cheng Feng, Jian Zhishan, Zhu Ying, Zhang Chunyan, Hu Li, Chen Lili
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  301-307.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.013
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and advantages of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion treatment by transmission straight wire technique. Methods Ninety-seven patients who received treatment for skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion at the Department of Stomatology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 2012 to January 2017 were selected for this retrospective study. All these patients refused surgery. They were divided into two groups in accordance with the type of skeletal malocclusion: mild-to-moderate skeletal malocclusion group (-4°≤ANB <0°) and severe skeletal malocclusion group (-8°≤ANB<-4°). Each of the two groups was divided further into two small groups in accordance with the technique used: T group (transmission straight wire technique) and M group (MBT technique). Results The crossbite of all 59 patients in the mild-to-moderate skeletal malocclusion group was successfully treated. The molars were classified as classⅠrelationship, and the facial profile improved. Significant differences were found in the values of U1/SN angle, L1/MP angle, and Lip-Diff between the T and M groups before and after the treatment (P<0.05). The extent of incisor root resorption was lighter in the T group than in the M group (P<0.05). In the severe skeletal malocclusion group, the crossbite of all 38 patients was cured or partially cured. Fourteen patients showed severe lower anterior teeth inclination (five in the T group and nine in the M group), and the profiles did not significantly improve. Significant differences were observed in the values of U1-NA value, U1/SN angle, L1-NB value, L1/MP angle, LLP, and Lip-Diff between the T and M groups before and after the treatment (P<0.05). The extent of incisor root resorption was lighter in the T group than in the M group (P<0.05). Conclusion Relative to the MBT technique, the transmission straight wire technique has great advantages in improving facial profile, reducing the compensatory inclination of the upper and lower anterior teeth, and reducing the risk of root resorption in the treatment of skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion.

    Correlation between social psychology and personality characteristics and treatment options for adult patients with skeletal malocclusion
    Zhang Guanning, Liu Yi, Li Wenyue, Fan Tiantian, Wang Jia, Zhao Zhenjin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  308-313.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.014
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    Objective This study aims to explore factors affecting the dental aesthetic social psychology of patients with skeletal malocclusion and to measure the relationship between the objective orthodontic requirements and the subjective treatment requirements of patients. This work provides a reference for doctors to measure patients’ orthodontic treatment needs. Methods Adult patients with skeletal malocclusion were chosen as the research object. Questionnaire survey was used to analyze factors influencing the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ), index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN), and Eysenck personality questionnaire-revised short scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC). The relationship among PIDAQ, IOTN, EPQ-RSC, and treatment options was also evaluated. Results Seventy-two valid questionnaires were collected from adult patients with skeletal malocclusion. 1) The PIDAQ scores significantly differed among different occupations (P<0.05) but were not affected by other general conditions such as gender and age. 2) Patients of different dental health component (DHC) grade and ages had different AC self-assessment scores (P<0.01, P<0.05). The AC self-assessment score was positively correlated with the PIDAQ score (P<0.05). 3) Males accounted for a higher proportion of patients who received treatment. Younger patients (18-28 years old) were more likely to receive treatment when their own dental aesthetics were poor. People with the higher monthly expenditure accounted for the larger proportion of surgical patients. 4) The PIDAQ score had no significant effects on the choice of operation (P>0.05). People with low educational level were more likely to receive surgery if their psychosocial impacts of dental aesthetics were serious. 5) The score of psychoticism scale of EPQ-RSC and the educational level had a mutual influence on the PIDAQ score (P<0.01). Moreover, the neuroticism scale and AC self-assessment scores had a mutual influence on the PIDAQ score (P<0.05). However, this study did not find a correlation between personality traits and treatment options. Conclusion Many factors, such as personal natural conditions, subjective aesthetic evaluation of teeth, and psychosocial impacts of dental aesthetics, affect patients’ treatment options. Personality characteristics can play a certain role in dental aesthetics social psychology.

    Effects of scaffold microstructure and mechanical properties on regeneration of tubular dentin
    Liu Yiping, Wang Jue, Tian Zilu, Zhai Peisong, Wang Zhanqi, Zhou Yanmin, Ni Shilei
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  314-318.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.015
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    Tubular dentin is of great significance in the process of tooth tissue and tooth regeneration, because it is not only the structural feature of primary dentin, but also can affect the tooth sensory function, affect the differentiation of dental pulp cells and provide strong mechanical support for teeth. Scaffold is one of the three elements of tissue engineering dentin regeneration. Most experiments on dentin regeneration involve the study of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffold. The microstructure and mechanical characteristics of scaffold materials have important effects on the differentiation and adhesion of odontoblast, it can directly affect the tissue structure of regenerated dentin.

    Research progress on the regulation of phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese herbs on oral microbes
    Zong Yawen, Cheng Lei, Guo Qiang, Zhou Xuedong, Ren Biao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  319-323.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.016
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    Phenolic compounds are widely found in natural Chinese medicinal plants and have excellent pharmacological properties, such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation. They are the main pharmacological components of many medicinal Chinese herbs. Oral microbiota, especially its composition and metabolism, is highly related to the balance of oral microecology and plays a key role in the occurrence and development of oral diseases. Recent studies have shown that phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese herbs can prevent and treat oral diseases, such as caries, periodontal disease, and oral mucosal infection, by regulating the composition, metabolites, and virulence of oral microorganisms. This review will summarize and discuss the regulation of phenolic compounds on oral microbes.

    Research progress on the biological regulatory function of lysophosphatidic acid in bone tissue cells
    Wu Xiangnan, Ma Yuanyuan, Hao Zhichao, Wang Hang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  324-329.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.017
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    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small phospholipid that is present in all eukaryotic tissues and blood plasma. As an extracellular signaling molecule, LPA mediates many cellular functions by binding to six known G protein-coupled receptors and activating their downstream signaling pathways. These functions indicate that LPA may play important roles in many biological processes that include organismal development, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. Recently, many studies have found that LPA has various biological effects in different kinds of bone cells. These findings suggest that LPA is a potent regulator of bone development and remodeling and holds promising application potential in bone tissue engineering. Here, we review the recent progress on the biological regulatory function of LPA in bone tissue cells.

    Functions of non-coding RNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived cells
    Wen Jiahui, Wu Yanmin, Chen Lili
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  330-337.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.018
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    Human periodontal ligament-derived cells serve as an important source of seeding cells in periodontal regenerative medicine, and their osteogenic potential is closely related to alveolar bone repair and periodontal regeneration. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA), such as microRNA, long non-coding RNA, and circular RNA, play important roles in the regulation of osteogenic genes in human periodontal ligament-derived cells. In this review, we summarize the target genes, pathways, and functions of the ncRNA network during osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament-derived cells.

    Application of two-stage ridge splitting technique in atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge
    Li Xiaomei, Bao Jibo, Xie Zhigang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  338-342.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.019
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    Adequate bone volume is the primary condition for successful dental implants. However, sufficient bone volume is often encountered in the vertical direction, but the bone volume in the buccolingual direction is insufficient, making it less suitable to be implanted. If the traditional spitting technique is used in the mandible, fracture and necrosis can easily occur in the labial (buccal) bone plate due to the absence of elasticity, thick cortical bone, poor blood supply, and anastomotic branch. The two-stage ridge splitting technique can be used in patients with narrow alveolar ridge in the mandible. This study summarizes the principles and conditions of application, operational points, clinical efficacy, and analysis of the causes of buccal bone plate absorption.

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in gingiva: a case report
    Dai Luling, Yang Xiuxiu, Zhao Haowei, Han Qi, Chen Yu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  343-346.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.020
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    As an aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) rarely occurs in the oral and maxillofacial region. The gingiva is an unusual site of BSCC. This study reported a 78-year-old male who presented with left maxillary pain. Clinical examination revealed a gingival mass in the left maxilla. Under microscope, the lesion showed typical comedo necrosis and peripheral palisading. Areas of glandular-like structures were also observed. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that the Ki-67 score of BSCC in this case was 28%, and S-100 was positive in some areas. However, P16 and CK7 were negative. Finally, a diagnosis of BSCC was made based on the pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The patient underwent subtotal maxillectomy. After 12 months later, the patient was alive with no evidence of disease. Combined with relevant literature, this article analyzed the clinicopathological features, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of BSCC. Although surgery remains the main treatment in the head and neck region, radiation-chemotherapy should be considered in some human papilloma virus-positive cases.

    Whole-course, individualized, and standardized sequential nutrition therapy for radical resection of tongue cancer: a case report
    Tian Mengxing, Hu Renchong, Jin Xin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  347-349.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.021
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    Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatments for tongue cancer, but the nutritional status of patients is not considered. Nutritional treatment is often not standard or by experience. This article reports a patient with tongue cancer who underwent preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative nutrition treatment. The entire process of individualized and sequential nutrition therapy was adopted, and the nutritional status of the patient was significantly improved. This paper describes the methods of nutrition therapy and evaluation and discusses the treatment process and key points in combination with relevant literature.

    Precise tooth preparation technique guided by 3D printing guide plate with quantitative hole
    Liu Chunxu, Gao Jing, Zhao Yuwei, Fan Lin, Jia Luming, Hu Nan, Mei Ziyu, Dong Bo, Zhang Qianqian, Yu Haiyang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2020, 38(3):  350-355.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2020.03.022
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    The minimum amount of tooth preparation that can be fully controlled is crucial in achieving long-term, stable, and effective aesthetic restoration, which is also a major difficulty in aesthetic restoration. The tooth preparation can be implemented efficiently and accurately through digital technology based on the fixed-deep hole guiding technology. Prior the actual tooth preparation, the technology first designs the virtual contour, layering, and virtual occlusion of the prosthesis on the computer. Then, virtual tooth preparation is carried out by cutting back according to the virtual prosthesis. Next, the virtual drilling operation plan is designed according to the shape of the virtual tooth preparation and the contour of the abutment tooth. Finally, the tooth preparation guide plate is designed and printed in 3D. It realizes the whole process of quantitative and precise guidance of dental preparation, visualizes the restoration space, reduces the clinical operation time, and guarantees the quality of dental preparation. It also promotes the improvement of the teaching quality of digital practical exercises.