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Table of Content
01 August 2018, Volume 36 Issue 4
  • Orginal Article
    Application of minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry in the clinics of pediatric dentistry
    Xiaojing Wang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  349-354.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.001
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    With the minimally invasive treatment attracting considerable attention in the field of dentistry, a series of oral minimally invasive treatment technologies, including minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry (MICD) technology, is emerging. Children, as a special group of patients, are in the critical stage of the initial formation of psychological structure. Therefore, children’s dental treatment should not be limited to restoring function and relieving pain. The development, aesthetics, and physical and mental health should also be given attention. Therefore, in recent years, MICD technology has been widely used in diagnosis and treatment of pediatric dentistry. This review provides a detailed introduction regarding a series of techniques in pediatric dentistry.

    Periodontal status assessment before orthodontic treatment and opportune moment selection for orthodontic treatment
    Yi Xu, Jingmei Yang, Shu Meng, Lei Zhao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  355-359.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.002
    Abstract ( 1512 )   HTML ( 275 )   PDF(pc) (9712KB) ( 1940 )   Save
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    The aesthetic demands of teeth by the public have improved with the increase in the living standard. Orthodontics, which is a method of aesthetic dentistry, is becoming increasingly important. Orthodontic treatment mainly involves the appli-cation of orthodontic force to the teeth and guides the reconstruction of the periodontal tissue, thereby changing the position of the teeth at the occlusal bone. Orthodontic treatment can also improve the dental occlusion caused by dentition crowding and teeth mobility to achieve long-term stability of periodontal tissue. The number of patients with periodontal disease is high in China, and the number of patients with periodontal disease that are eager to receive orthodontic treatment is increasing. Hence, the periodontal status during the orthodontic therapy should be explored along with periodontal therapy and orthodontic treatment. This article briefly demonstrates the assessment criteria of periodontal status before orthodontic treatment, the oppor-tune moment selection for orthodontic treatment, and the supportive periodontal therapy. This study helps dentists develop individualized treatment programs and win a balanced, stable, and aesthetic impression.

    Link between sortase A function and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans: a preliminary metabolomics analysis
    Ying Song, Jinglin Zhou, Yuanli He, Wei Li, Ling Zou
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  360-366.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.003
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    Objective This study intends to explore the mechanism underlying the support of sortase A (SrtA) of the cario-genicity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Methods We performed a metabonomics study based on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), in which we compared the extracellular metabolites of wild-type S. mutans UA159 with those of its SrtA-deficient strain. Metabolite differences among strains were identified using a combination of principal component analysis and orthogonality partial least square discriminant analysis. Results Several differences corresponding mostly to unknown metabolites were identified. Some amino acids such as leucine and valine (δ 0.92×10-6-1.20×10-6), lactic acid ( δ1.28×10-6), oxoglutaric acid (δ 3.00×10-6), and glycine (δ 3.60×10-6) differed among strains. Conclusion This work establishes the feasibility of using 1H NMR-based metabonomics to provide leads for research into molecular factors that promote caries. The database of microbial metabolites should be also improved in further studies.

    Human osteoprotegerin inhibits osteoclasts and promotes hydroxyapatite to repair the mandibular defects in ovariec-tomized rats
    Feng Liao, Shibo Liu, Yao Liu, Hanghang Liu, Jian Hu, Xian Liu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  367-371.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.004
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the effect of human osteoprotegerin (hOPG) gene-modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) combined with hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds on the repair of mandibular defects in ovariectomized rats. Methods rBMSCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying pDC316-hOPG-EGFP. The expression of hOPG and the inhibition of osteoclast function were detected by Western blot and bone-grinding experiment respectively. The model of mandibular bone defect in rats with osteoporosis was established; HA, untransfected rBMSCs-conjugated HA, and transfected rBMSCs-conjugated HA scaffolds were implanted into the mandibular bone defects. After six weeks, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining were used to observe the number of osteoclasts and repair of bone defect. Results Adenovirus carrying hOPG gene in vitro were successfully transfected into rBMSCs. The hOPG with anti-osteoclast activity was expressed by hOPG-rBMSCs, and rBMSCs expressing hOPG combined with HA scaffolds promoted mandibular defect repair. Conclusion rBMSCs transfected with hOPG gene inhibited the function of osteoc-lasts both in vitro and in vivo, and transfected rBMSCs com-bined with HA scaffolds promoted the repair of mandibular defects in rats with osteoporosis.

    Comparative study of processed autogenous tooth bone and xenogeneic bovine bone in repairing an alveolar bone defect
    Lishuo Yang, Jianwei Yan, Hui Zheng, Rui Ni, Xiaokun Han, Xin Chang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  372-377.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.005
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    Objective This study was conducted to counter the osteogenesis effects of processed autogenous tooth bone and xenogeneic bovine bone following tooth extraction and to provide an experimental basis for clinical applications. Methods Central incisors were extracted with general anesthesia on both sides of a maxillary arch in 12 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups, thereby containing four rabbits in each group. Three rabbits were assigned to the experimental groups and one was for the control group. In the experimental groups, the xenogeneic bovine bone was applied to the left incisor socket, whereas the processed autogenous tooth bone was applied to the right incisor socket. The blank control group only extracted the teeth and did not implant any bone powder. The three groups died after 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. A mineralization degree of new bone tissues was observed by fluorescence staining and the formation of a new bone was observed by histology. Results The sedimentary mineralization rate was greater in the processed autogenous tooth bone than in the xenogeneic bovine bone (P<0.05). The trabecular bone of the xenogeneic bovine bone was sparse and slender. The left sockets, which were filled with the xenogeneic bovine bone, had more woven and less lamellar bones than the right sockets, which were filled with the processed autogenous tooth bone. Conclusion The processed autogenous tooth bone offers more advantages as a bone-grafting material than the xenogeneic bovine bone in terms of bone increment.

    Role of neuropeptide substance P and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway in osteogenic differentiation of ST2 cells
    Ting Hui, Guangcan Zhang, Dandan Feng, Ping Ji
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  378-383.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.006
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in ST2 cell (bone mesenchymal stem cells of mice) osteogenic differentiation to provide a basis for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. Methods Third-generation ST2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of SP (0, 10-10, 10-8, 10-6, and 10-5 mol·L-1). After 24, 48, and 72 h, cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8. The ST2 cells were cultured with 10-6 mol·L-1 SP for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Subsequently, the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen typeⅠ(CollaⅠ), and osteocalcin (OCN) in the culture supernatant was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALP activity was detected by immunofluorescence staining. The ST2 cells were cultured with SP, Noggin (inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway), SP+Noggin, and 2% fetal bovine serum, respectively. Finally, the expression of ALP, CollaⅠ, and OCN in the culture supernatant was tested by ELISA. Results CCK-8 showed that the effect of cell proli-feration was most obvious when the SP concentration was 10-6 mol·L-1 (P<0.01). The ELISA results demonstrated that ALP expression significantly increased at day 5 compared with that in the control group (P<0.01), whereas the expression of CollaⅠand OCN significantly increased at day 7 (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results showed that ALP activity was strongest at day 5. The expression of ALP, CollaⅠ, and OCN decreased after Noggin addition (P<0.05). Conclusion SP can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ST2 cells, and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway may be involved in this process.

    Correlations between the T helper cell 17/regulatory T cells balance in peripheral blood of patients with oral lichen planus and clinical characteristics
    Peiru Jia, Yunying Huang, Ying Wang, Yang Cai
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  384-388.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.007
    Abstract ( 608 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (1535KB) ( 430 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the ratio of T helper cell 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood of oral lichen planus (OLP) and explore the pathogenesis of its possible role and significance. Methods The peripheral blood samples were obtained from 33 patients with OLP (15 cases of reticular OLP and 18 cases of erosive OLP) and 17 healthy controls. The percentages of Th17 and Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique was used to detect the expression levels of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt) and forkhead box 3 (Foxp3). Results The proportions of Th17, Treg cells, and their transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3) in OLP were higher than those in the control groups (P<0.05). By contrast, in Treg cells and Foxp3, no significance was observed between erosive OLP and reticular OLP. Th17/Treg ratio increased in OLP. This ratio was significantly increased in erosive OLP compared with those in the control groups and reticular OLP (P<0.01). Nevertheless, no significance was noted between reticular OLP and control groups. Statistical analysis demonstrated positive correlations among Th17 cells, Th17/Treg, and clinical characteristics (r=0.66, P=0.00; r=0.66, P=0.00; r=0.52, P=0.00; r=0.50, P=0.00). Positive correlations also existed between Th17 and Treg cells (r=0.39, P=0.03). Conclusion Th17 cells, Treg cells, and their ratios all increased in the peripheral blood of OLP. Moreover, the imbalance inTh17/Treg may play a role in the pathogenesis of erosive OLP.

    Relationship among gingival thickness, underlying alveolar bone thickness, and sagittal root position in the maxillary anterior
    Jie Yuan, Yong Wen, Haiyun Huang, Xin Xu, Baoqi Jiang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  389-393.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.008
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    Objective This study aimed to explore the relationship among gingival thickness (GT), underlying alveolar bone thickness (BT), and sagittal root position in the maxillary anterior measured by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The theoretical foundation was applied to aesthetic dentistry, implant treatment planning, and therapeutic effect assessment. Methods A total of 40 young volunteers with healthy periodontal status were involved in this research [16 males and 24 females aged 23-34 years with a mean age of (26.30±2.29) years]. Three records were measured by CBCT. GT was measured at the cemento-enamel junction level. Buccal BT was measured at three locations: 1, 3, and 5 mm below the alveolar crest, along the sagittal angle between the long axis of teeth, and along the long axis of the respective alveolar bone. Results The average GT and alveolar BT thicknesses were (1.08±0.34) mm and (0.79±0.29) mm, respectively. The average angle between teeth and alveolar bone was 18.01°±8.96°. BT was positively associated with GT (r=0.293, P=0.001). The BT of canine was positively associated with the angle between teeth and alveolar bone (r=0.457, P=0.003).Conclusion BT was relatively thin. An angle was found between the long axis of teeth and that of the alveolar bone. BT was positively associated with GT. An accurate diagnosis of GT, underlying alveolar BT, and sagittal root position in the maxillary anterior is necessary before implant surgery to devise an appropriate implant treatment plan and achieve a predictable esthetic outcome.

    Correlation between parental rearing patterns and self-consciousness of adolescents with cleft lip and palate
    Jie Lin, Furong Zhao, Caixia Gong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  394-397.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.009
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the current situation of parental rearing patterns and self-cons-ciousness of adolescents with cleft lip and palate. The relationship between parental rearing patterns and self-consciousness of adolescents was also analyzed to provide evidence for psychological intervention. Methods The study was carried out on 400 adolescents (11-25 years old) with cleft lip and palate. The subjects were assessed with self-consciousness scale for patients with cleft lip and palate and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran family rearing questionnaires to evaluate the current status of self-consciousness and parental rearing patterns in adolescents with cleft lip and palate and the relevance of the two factors. Results A total of 380 valid questionnaires were obtained. A significant relationship was found between parental rearing patterns and self-consciousness in adolescents with cleft lip and palate. A positive correlation was also observed between the scores of self-evaluation, self-confidence, others’ evaluation and psychological endurance, interpersonal relationship, and parent-child relationship of adolescents with cleft lip and palate and the scores of their parents’ emotional care. Confidence was negatively correlated with the scores of parents’ refusal to deny, punishment, and severity. Conclusion Good parental rearing patterns play a critical role in establishing self-confidence, improving social adaptability, and maintaining interpersonal and parent-child relationship. Parents should give much care while avoiding refusal, denial, and punishment.

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 inducing metastasis squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck induced via integrin αvβ3-CXC chemokine receptor 4/7 biological axis
    Peng Li, Wenlu Li, Jinxing Qi
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  398-403.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.010
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    Objective To observe the influence of LM609/AMD3100/CCX754 on chemotactic capability, cytoskeleton, and expression of integrin αvβ3 protein of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) cell line PCI-13 induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in vitro. Methods Migration assays, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to observe the effects of SDF-1, LM609, AMD3100 and CCX754 on the migration, cytoskeleton and the expression of integrin αvβ3 protein in PCI-13 cell lines. Results SDF-1 favored PCI-13 cell migration, pseudopod formation, and activities of integrin αvβ3 phosphorylation. LM609, AMD3100, and CCX754 blocked all these effects. Conclusion SDF-1 can induce metastatic SCCHN by integrin αvβ3-CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4/CXCR7 axi. LM609, AMD3100, and CCX754 and can reduce the regulation of SDF-1 on SCCHN activity.

    Role and mechanism of Galectin-3 gene in proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma
    Zheng Fang, Feng Qiu, Junfang Zhao, Qiang Sun, Bin Qiao, Guanghui Li, Xinming Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  404-409.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.011
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    Objective The effect and mechanism of Galectin-3 gene expression on proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were investigated. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein of Galectin-3 gene in OSCC. OSCC Tca8113 was divided into control, negative control, and Galectin-3 transfection groups. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Galectin-3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, Cleaved Caspase-3, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 protein after transfection for 48 h in each group. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8. Cell invasion ability was detected by using a Transwell chamber. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of Galectin-3 gene in OSCC were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P<0.01). Galectin-3 protein expression in Tca8113 cells significantly decreased after RNA interference. Cell survival rate and invasion as well as MMP-2, MMP-9, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 protein expression were significantly lower than the blank group. Apoptosis rate and Cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression were sig-nificantly higher than the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Inhibition of Galectin-3 gene expression in OSCC can signi-ficantly reduce the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells and induce apoptosis. The mechanism is related to downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Systematic retrospective study of oral cancer-related quality of life scale
    Shuaihua Qin, Xinming Li, Wenlu Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  410-420.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.012
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    Objective The quality of life (QOL) related to oral cancer has recently become a focus of clinical studies. This study aims to systematically review the current research situation of QOL of local and foreign oral cancer patients and explore the existing related problems and future research directions to provide references and solutions. Methods Through relevant key words, PubMed, Wiley InterScience, Science Direct, CNKI, and Wanfang databases were first searched. The related target literature from 2000 to 2017 were screened. Finally, the frequency of oral cancer related to QOL scale used in literature was calculated, and the related scales were briefly introduced. Results From the target literature, 218 English target literature, 55 Chinese target literature, 24 English scales, and 12 Chinese scales were selected. The most widely used scales for assessing the QOL of patients with oral cancer were as follows: University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL), European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Head and Neck 35 (EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H&N), and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). Conclusion The QOL related to oral cancer was well underway, and the study of geographical distribution was widespread. However, the work on self-developed scale remains inadequate. UW-QOL, EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35, and FACT-H&N can be utilized as the preferred scales for evaluating the QOL of oral cancer patients. A specific disease-related function scale can also be selected according to specific research objectives.

    Efficacy of minocycline hydrochloride combined with flap surgery for chronic periodontitis: a Meta-analysis
    Yuanliang Bai, Taijing Zheng, Zhiwei Zhang, Yi Gan, Jiao Huang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  421-427.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.013
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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 2% minocycline hydrochloride combined with flap surgery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. The superiority of this therapy to simple flap surgery was also explored. Methods We searched the databases of CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biomedical Literature, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase from inception to July 2017. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and evaluated the bias risk of included studies. Then, Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results A total of seven randomized controlled trials involving 217 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that, in two groups, the changes in probing depth (PD) [MD=-0.55, 95%CI (-0.84, -0.26), P=0.000 2] and plaque index [MD=-0.08, 95%CI (-0.15, -0.01), P=0.03] at 3 and 6 months of PD [MD=-0.62, 95%CI (-1.04, -0.21), P=0.003] had statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The clinical attachment loss (CAL) [MD=-0.21, 95%CI (-0.47, 0.04), P=0.10] had no statistically significant difference after 3 months (P>0.05), but the improvement in CAL was significantly improved by minocycline hydrochloride combined with flap therapy. Conclusion Periodontal flap combined with minocycline adjuvant therapy for chronic periodontitis is effective in short-term observations.

    Dental care utilization of immigrants in Chengdu, China
    Wen Chen, Xiaohan Zhang, H Houser Shannon, Xue-dong Zhou, Xing Qu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  428-434.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.014
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    Objective This study considered Chengdu, Sichuan, China as an example to investigate the dental service utilization by foreigners and its influencing factors. Results of the study can be referred by dental practitioners to explore international development of dental services and can be provided for health policy makers to formulate oral health policies for immigrants. Methods A simple random sampling method with a questionnaire was designed based on Anderson’s health utilization model and “Oral Health Questionnaire for Adults” by the World Health Organization. Oral health con-dition, consciousness, and demographic data were collected. Binary Logistic regression and stratified analysis with SPSS 20.0 were performed. Results A total of 654 immigrants repre-senting 75 countries participated in the study. Among all participants, 102 (15.6%) experienced dental problems while in resi-dence in China but paid no visit to dentists. Female immigrants, who spent considerable time living in Chengdu, experienced oral problems in a year, used dental floss, and reported family members in Chengdu, were more likely to visit Chinese dentists. Participants who lived in Chengdu for at least 10.5 months were the threshold distinguishing differences in dental visits in the country. Conclusion The policymakers in Chengdu should consider creating a convenient and conducive dental care environment for immigrants. Additional information related to urgent oral and routine care should be provided to short- and long-term living immigrants in China. Dental practitioners in China should also contemplate on collaborating with foreign dental insurance companies to ensure better dental care access for immigrant patients.

    Indirect pulp therapy for deciduous teeth with deep caries lesions
    Si Wu, Yingling Liu, Jing Zou, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  435-440.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.015
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    Deciduous teeth are the first dentition of humans and play an important role in children’s physical and mental development. Dental caries are one of the most common oral diseases in children. According to the data of the World Health Organization, 60%-90% of school children worldwide develop dental caries. In China, dental caries of primary teeth feature high incidence and low rate of visits. Without timely treatment, the deep caries lesions of primary teeth can lead to teeth defect, pulpitis, apical periodontitis, and maxillofacial space infection. Moreover, the premature loss of deciduous teeth can cause malocclusion and eruption disorder of subsequent permanent teeth. These conditions all cause considerable effects on children’s oral health and physical and mental development. Performing active and effective measures to treat deciduous teeth with deep caries lesions is important to maintain the integrity and normal physiological function of dentition and facilitate normal eruption of permanent teeth. The current situation of indirect pulp therapy in China was studied in this paper. Basic concepts, including indirect pulp capping, interim therapeutic restoration, partial caries removal, stepwise caries removal, and atraumatic restorative therapy, have been defined by consulting domestic and foreign literature. A theoretical basis for improving the clinical pathway of deciduous teeth with deep caries lesions is provided by explaining the technical connotation and therapeutic im-portance of indirect pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    Research progress on chitosan composite scaffolds in bone tissue engineering
    Xinxin Ding, Yanmin Zhou, Xing-chen Xiang, Lin Meng, Qin Qin, Shan Ye
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  441-446.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.016
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    Bone tissue engineering is a scientific field devoted to the development of materials that can repair or replace human bone tissue with biological and engineering methods. The stent, which provides structural support and adhesion sites for cell and tissue growth, is one of the key elements in tissue engineering. The scaffold may comprise metal, polymer, and ceramic biomaterial. The polymer scaffold is widely used due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical stability. Chitosan, as a natural polymer, is derived from chitin and has played a particularly important role in bone tissue engineering over the past two decades. In recent years, chitosan composites and their application in bone tissue engineering have received considerable attention due to their small foreign body reaction, excellent antibacterial properties, plasticity, suitability for inward cell growth, and bone conduction. This review will discuss the biocompatibility and osteogenesis research in vivo and in vitro of several common chitosan composites in bone tissue engineering.

    Research progress in pulpless posterior tooth restored with ceramic onlay
    Weilin Qiang, Yuxuan Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  447-451.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.017
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    Minimal invasive restoration is a common technique in the restoration of pulpless posterior teeth. The deve-lopment of bonding techniques and ceramic materials in recent years has increased the use of high-strength ceramic onlay in the restoration of endodontically treated posterior teeth because of its minimal invasiveness, improved aesthetics, and low requirement of mechanical retention. This study conducts a retrospective analysis on the material, tooth preparation, bonding, and clinical considerations of ceramic onlay in endodontically treated posterior tooth.

    Application of artificial intelligence in stomatology treatment and nursing
    Xiaoqin Bi, Furong Zhao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  452-456.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.018
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    Currently, artificial intelligence technology is being developed rapidly and is used in many clinical areas, espe-cially in stomatology. The application of artificial intelligence technology in stomatology is a new technological revolution. This study focuses on artificial intelligence and its application status. The advantages, current situation, and development pros-pect of the application of artificial intelligence technology in stomatology treatment and nursing, such as oral and maxillofacial surgery, implant, prosthetics, orthodontics, oral medicine therapy, guidance, and teaching, are provided.

    Gardner syndrome with chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw: a case report
    Peiwen Chen, Leshi Wang, Yuehong Wang, Xiaodan Fang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  457-460.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.019
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    Gardner syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease. Its symptoms include multiple intestinal polyps, soft tissue tumors, dental disorders, osteoma, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Here, we present a patient with Gardner syndrome and chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw to highlight the serious damage that can be caused by Gardner syndrome.

    Multiple pregnancy epulides: a case report
    Chunshu Zhang, Wenxia Wang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(4):  461-463.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.04.020
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    Pregnancy epulis is a tumor-like lesion that results from aggravating gingivitis due to high level of gonadal hormone concentration. Pregnancy epulis is commonly manifested as a single lump. A case of multiple pregnancy epulises, which has been rarely explored, is reported in this paper. The patient received no other treatment but a single supragingival scaling. Results showed no remarkable changes in the lesion. However, all the epulides regressed spontaneously in five months after the parturition.