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Table of Content
01 February 2022, Volume 40 Issue 1
  • Progress and perspectives on cell-free regenerative endodontic therapy
    Zhou Jian, Su Yingying, Wang Song-ling
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  1-6.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.001
    Abstract ( 1572 )   HTML ( 219 )   PDF(pc) (1449KB) ( 1765 )   Save
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    Although teeth with pulpitis/apical periodontitis are saved after successful endodontic therapy, they are devitalized and susceptible to reinfections and fractures. The development of biology-based approaches for dental pulp regeneration or repair is possible today because of recent advances in tissue engineering and biomaterials. Cell-free regenerative endodontic therapy offers a promising strategy for the treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents. However, studies are underway to determine whether this procedure can be applied to mature teeth.

    Prospect on the application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in the regeneration of dental and maxillofacial tissues
    Liao Li, Tian Weidong.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  7-13.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.002
    Abstract ( 507 )   HTML ( 48 )   PDF(pc) (1448KB) ( 530 )   Save
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    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the essential mediators of communication between different cells or tissues. EVs participate in the development, homeostasis, repair, and regeneration of tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) secrete a range of bioactive factors, which are important in MSC-mediated tissue regeneration. Great progress has been made in the research of EVs derived from MSCs (MSC-EVs) in the regeneration of dental and maxillofacial tissues. Emerging evidence confirmed that MSC-EVs can efficiently modulate the proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration of stem or progenitor cells and stimulate the regeneration of the neurovascular system. MSC-EVs have been used in regenerating dental pulp, periodontium, jawbone, temporomandibular joint, and maxillofacial soft tissues. Having the advantages of low immunogenicity, versatile function, and suitability for large-scale production, EVs have excellent clinical application prospect. Along with investigations on molecular mechanisms of action and development of standard manufactory and testing systems, therapies u-sing MSC-EVs are promising strategies for regenerating dental and maxillofacial tissues.

    Effect of growth differentiation factor 11 on the steatosis of condylar chondrocytes in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritic mice
    Wang Ruoxin, Liu Qian, He Feng, Zhang Mian, Wang Helin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  14-21.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.003
    Abstract ( 317 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (4898KB) ( 120 )   Save
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    Objective

    To observe the effect of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) on the steatosis of condylar chondrocytes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritic mice.

    Methods

    Six-week-old female C57 mice were stimulated with unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) and locally injected with GDF11. TMJ sections were stained with safranin O, and GDF11 and Adiponectin in the TMJ cartilage were detected by immunohistochemical staining. GDF11, Adiponectin, type Ⅱ collagen (Col-Ⅱ), Aggrecan, type Ⅰ collagen (Col-Ⅰ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and Perilipin 1 mRNA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR).

    Results

    The thickness and safranin O-positive area of TMJ cartilage in the UAC groups, as well as the mRNA expression of Col-Ⅱ and aggrecan, significantly decreased. The ratio of Adiponectin-positive cells significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of Col-Ⅰ, Adiponectin, FABP4, and Perilipin 1 significantly increased. The TMJ cartilage of the GDF11 injection groups significantly thickened, and the safranin O-positive area significantly increased. The mRNA expression of Col-Ⅱ and Aggrecan significantly increased. The ratio of Adiponectin-positive cells significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of Col-I, Adiponectin, FABP4, and Perilipin 1 significantly decreased.

    Conclusion

    Extensive steatosis of chondrocytes and decreased expression of GDF11 in the degenerated cartilage of TMJ osteoarthritis are induced by UAC stimulation. Supplementation of exogenous GDF11 can effectively inhibit the steatosis of chondrocytes.

    Oral cancer cells affect pancreatic β-cell function through transmissible endoplasmic reticulum stress
    Li Ruohan, Huang Yingzhao, Liao Nailin, Wu Chenzhou, Li Yi.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  22-31.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.004
    Abstract ( 395 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF(pc) (3195KB) ( 255 )   Save
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    Objective

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether oral cancer cells affect pancreatic β-cells function through transmissible endoplasmic reticulum stress (TERS).

    Methods

    Tunicamycin (TM) was selected as the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inducer. The human oral cancer cell lines CAl-27 and SCC-25 were selected as the donor cells, and mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cell lines were chosen as the recipient cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot (WB) analysis were used to detect ERS markers and insulin expression. The TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method was applied to detect apoptosis levels. The clone formation method was utilized to detect cell proliferation capability. The secretory function of pancreatic β-cells was detected with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) kit.

    Results

    The MIN6 cells were subjected to TM stimulation. qPCR and WB analysis revealed that ERS markers were upregulated. This result implied that the MIN6 cells can induce ERS. The supernatant of oral cancer cells under ERS was added to the MIN6 cells. qPCR and WB analysis showed that the oral cancer cells that had been subjected to ERS could induce ERS in the MIN6 cells, that is, the phenomenon of TERS occurred. The TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptosis of the MIN6 cells increased under TERS. The clone formation assay demonstrated that the proliferation capability of the MIN6 cells decreased under TERS. qPCR and WB analysis revealed that under TERS, insulin synthesis by the MIN6 cells decreased and insulin synthesis was inhibited at the translation level. The ELISA and BCA kits demonstrated that insulin secretion by the MIN6 cells was reduced under TERS.

    Conclusion

    Oral cancer cells can affect pancreatic β-cells through TERS, resulting in increased apoptosis, decreased viability, and reduced insulin secretion and synthesis capability.

    Synthesis of 5-fluorouracil-lactoside derivatives and experimental study on their anti-oral squamous cell carcinoma activity
    Zhang Yuting, Liu Jiang, Zhao Hang, He Yang, Chen Qianming
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  32-38.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.005
    Abstract ( 269 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF(pc) (3652KB) ( 115 )   Save
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    Objective

    To reduce the toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), design and synthesize 5-FU-lactoside derivatives, and preliminarily study their antitumor activities.

    Methods

    Target compounds were prepared with Vorbrüggenglycation procedures, the structures were characterized through high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR), heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC). A cell counting kit (CCK)-8 test was performed to examine their in vitro toxicity and antitumor activity. Experimental data were tested by χ2, and statistically significant differences were denoted by P<0.05.

    Results

    The target compounds were synthesized through a simple and efficient method. 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMQC, HMBC, and HRMS confirmed that Ⅰa and Ⅰb were 5-FU nucleoside derivatives substituted with lactoside groups at N-1 and N-3, respectively. The CCK-8 test verified that high concentrations (0.7 μmol·mL-1) of Ⅰa and Ⅰb inhibited the growth of normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) by 30.28% and 50.68% after 24 h of treatment. Both values were lower than the inhibitory effect of 5-FU (68.22%; P<0.05). Ⅰb had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The inhibition rates of Cal-27 cells and UM SCC-47 cells treated with 0.7 μmol·mL-1 for 24 h were 81.20% and 80.19%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Ⅰa and Ⅰb are less toxic than 5-FU. The antitumor activity of Ⅰb against oral squamous cell carcinoma cells is more obvious than that of Ⅰa.

    Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on the expression of inflammatory mediators in gingival epithelial cells
    Zhang Xiujuan, Wu Wei, Chen Xin, Fang Zhichun, Ye Jinxiang, Ou Xiaoyan.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  39-44.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.006
    Abstract ( 315 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (994KB) ( 114 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aims to determine the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation of human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs).

    Methods

    HGECs were cultivated with different concentrations of GSPs (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg·mL-1) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. CCK-8 was used to detect the proliferation activity of HGECs. HGECs were treated with different concentrations of GSPs (0, 10, 20, and 40 μg·mL-1) for 24 h and then cultured with 1.0 μg·mL-1 LPS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β.

    Results

    When the GSP concentration was 0-40 μg·mL-1, the cell proliferation had no significant difference. When the action time reached 24 h, the cell proliferation was the highest. The results of ELISA and QRT-PCR showed that 10, 20, and 40 μg·mL-1 GSPS decreased the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.05) and increased the expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β compared with 0 μg·mL-1 GSPS (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    GSPS (0-40 μg·mL-1) has no significant effect on the proliferation activity of HGECs. Pretreatment with GSPS can inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and enhance the expression of anti-inflammatory factors. Hence, GSPS has a certain preventive effect on the resistance of HGECs to the stimulation of endotoxin.

    Expression and significance of mucin-4 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 in peri-implant disease
    Jiang Dandan, Zhou Zheng, Shen Yufeng, Tang Xiaoxue, Gou Xiaorui, Huang Meiyu, Tong Yizhou, Chen Miaomiao, Yu Chong-qing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  45-51.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.007
    Abstract ( 264 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF(pc) (1068KB) ( 163 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aims to detect the levels of mucin (MUC)-4, metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, and MMP-8 in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) and investigate whether the novel combinations of MMP-7 and MUC-4 are effective markers of peri-implant diseases, particularly when used in the PICF of healthy individuals, to provide a theoretical basis for finding a novel reference index that can aid the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of peri-implant diseases.

    Methods

    A total of 63 subjects with 2-5 years of upper prosthesis loading were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, composed of 24 controls and 39 patients with peri-implantitis (PI) group. MUC-4, MMP-7, and MMP-8 levels were detected through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Results

    No significant differences in age, sex, and other parameters were found between the PI and control groups. The PI group had higher MMP-7 and MMP-8 expression levels (P<0.05) but lower MUC-4 level (P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed that MMP-7 was positively correlated with pocket probing depth (PPD) (r=0.451, P<0.001); MMP-8 was positively correlated with PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival index (GI) (r=0.619, P<0.001; r=0.478, P<0.001; r=0.332, P=0.009). MUC-4 was negatively correlated with PPD, BOP, and GI (r=-0.492, P<0.001; r=-0.321, P=0.010; r=-0.396, P=0.001). MMP-7, MMP-8, and MUC-4 had certain diagnostic efficacy for PI. MMP-8 exhibited the best diagnostic efficacy for PI. When the cutoff value of MMP-8 was >21.21, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.868, and the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PI were 0.96 and 0.68, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of MMP-7 and MUC-4 parallel diagnostic models was higher than that of each factor, and the diagnostic sensitivity of the model for PI was 0.96, and the specificity was 0.56.

    Conclusion

    Differences in MMP-7 and MUC-4 levels were found between the inflammation and control groups and may be diagnostic indicators for predicting PI; combinations of MMP-7 and MUC-4 had a good diagnostic value for inflammation.

    Investigation on the quality analysis of 1 312 single crown digital models
    Lu Jiayi, Zhao Junyi, Gao Jing, Yu Haiyang.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  52-60.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.008
    Abstract ( 927 )   HTML ( 103 )   PDF(pc) (2898KB) ( 810 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to investigate the quality of single crown digital models, enhance communication between clinicians and technicians, and improve the quality of restorations to further reduce remake rate.

    Methods

    A total of 1 312 single crown digital models (180 anterior teeth, 294 premolars, and 838 molars) were randomly selected from a large commercial dental factory. The digital models were evaluated by three investigators with the same working experience with the same intraoral scanning system (CEREC). CEREC SW 4.4 was used in capturing the images of single crown preparations, and prepCheck 3.1 was used in evaluating the quality of single crown digital models.

    Results

    Approximately 6.55%, 0.08%, 81.17%, 19.59%, and 22.48% of 1 312 single crown digital models did not meet the standards of the undercut, surface quality, margin quality, buccal-lingual taper, and mesiodistal taper, respectively. Moreover, 23.25%, 28.51%, 28.43%, and 28.35% of the investigated single crown digital models did not meet the standards of the buccal inclination taper, lingual inclination taper, mesial inclination taper, and distal inclination taper, respectively. The quality of anterior teeth, premolars, molars at the margin quality, buccal-lingual taper, mesiodistal taper, buccal inclination taper, lingual inclination taper, mesial inclination taper, and distal inclination taper significantly varied in the evaluation results (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    In addition to the undercut and surface quality met the standard, the overall situation of the quality of the single crown digital preparation model was poor, and the quality of the preparation needs to be improved urgently.

    Clinical application of double-layer soft tissue closure technology based on pedicled buccal fat pad in repairing maxillary defects after medication-related osteonecrosis of jaw surgery
    Guo Yuxing, Zhao Ning, Wang Diancan, Wang Yang, Guo Chuanbin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  61-67.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.009
    Abstract ( 457 )   HTML ( 40 )   PDF(pc) (2230KB) ( 392 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to analyze the clinical application effect of the double-layer soft tissue closure technique (DLST) based on pedicled buccal fat pad in repairing maxillary defects after medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) surgery.

    Methods

    Ten patients with maxillary MRONJ were diagnosed and treated via DLST based on pedicled buccal fat pad. Partial maxillary resection was conducted to remove the MRONJ lesion, and the inflammatory soft tissue in the maxillary sinus cavity was removed but the maxillary sinus mucosa was retained. Patients also underwent resection of the lower segment of the sphenoid pterygoid process. A pedicled buccal fat pad was used to line the maxillary sinus floor and oral mucosa to achieve double-layer soft tissue closure of the wound. The characteristics of the medication for the primary disease, the clinical characteristics and imaging characteristics of osteonecrosis, the surgical treatment effects, pain score, and functional status evaluation of the 10 patients were all reviewed and analyzed.

    Results

    Among the 10 patients, there were 5 cases of breast cancer, 2 cases of lung cancer, 1 case of prostate cancer, 1 case of multiple myeloma, and 1 case of kidney cancer. All 10 patients received zoledronic acid, and the average time of application of zoledronic acid was 34 months. Six patients had upper jaw exposure, and 4 patients had gingival soft tissue fistula; the average time to clinical symptoms was 5.6 months. Among them, 5 patients had a history of tooth extraction, 3 patients with apical periodontitis, 1 patient with periodontitis, and 1 patient with spontaneous teeth loss. The lesions of 10 patients were all located in the maxillary posterior area. CT images can often show sequestration near the maxillary sinus floor, and the maxillary sinus cavity was full of soft tissue inflammation in most patients. During the follow-up period, 8 patients healed by the first intention, and the other patient had partial liquefaction of the buccal fat pad 2 weeks after the operation, and the oral mucosa fistula closed 1 month after the operation. In another patient, MRONJ symptoms recurred 2 months after the operation, and the surgical site occasionally swelled and discharged pus. The patient’s symptoms were completely relieved after another operation. The patient’s pain and functional status improved significantly after the operation.

    Conclusion

    Maxillary MRONJ is commonly found in the posterior area. The buccal fat pad-based DLST is used to repair the defect after maxillary resection, which is beneficial to seal the oral-maxillary sinus fistula and improve the clinical symptoms of patients with MRONJ.

    Application of digital guide plate based on drill-hole sharing in oral and maxillofacial surgery
    Wang Lidong, Ma Wen, Fu Shuai, Zhang Changbin, Cui Qingying, Peng Canbang, Li Ming.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  68-74.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.010
    Abstract ( 458 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF(pc) (4514KB) ( 349 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to investigate the application of digital guide plate based on the drill-hole sharing concept in orthognathic surgery and mandibular reconstruction.

    Methods

    Sixteen patients with maxillofacial deformity requiring orthognathic surgery and 10 patients requiring mandibular reconstruction were selected as the research objects. Patients with maxillofacial deformity were scanned by computed tomography (CT), gypsum mold of the maxilla and mandibular arch were scanned using a laser surface scanner, and the fibula or iliac bone of the patients who needed mandibular reconstruction were scanned by CT to create a 3D model. The osteotomy and repositioning guides based on the drill-hole sharing concept were manufactured by digital technology. The guide plate was used to guide osteotomy and reposition the bone segment. Postoperative CT scan was performed. The displacement error of the bone segment was compared between the preoperative virtual surgery and the actual surgery to evaluate the accuracy of the guide plate, by measuring the distance between the landmarks and three reference planes and the distance between the two landmarks.

    Results

    The wounds healed well in all patients, and no serious complications were observed. The maximum mean values of LeFort Ⅰ osteotomy, genioplasty, fibular reconstruction, and iliac reconstruction were 0.84, 0.64, 1.27, and 1.18 mm, respectively; these values were acceptable by clinical standards.

    Conclusion

    The digital guide plate based on the drill-hole sharing concept has high accuracy and clinical application value in orthognathic surgery and mandibular reconstruction.

    Translation and validation of the Chinese version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 8-10 years
    Zeng Xinyi, Cheng Bin, Zhang Lin, Guo Yuxuan, Li Yiling, Zou Jing, Wang Yan.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  75-79.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.011
    Abstract ( 294 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (636KB) ( 158 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to establish a Chinese version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for children aged 8-10 years (CPQ8-10) and evaluate its reliability and validity for a comprehensive and reliable assessment of oral health-related quality of life in children.

    Methods

    The Chinese CPQ8-10 was formed through translation, reverse translation, and cross-cultural adaption according to international standard procedures. It was used to evaluate the children's oral health-related quality of life to assess the reliability and validity of the scale.

    Results

    A total of 446 children received the survey, and 405 valid questionnaires were obtained. Cronbach's a for the full scale was 0.87, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the total scale was 0.88. The CPQ8-10 score was significantly correlated with the score of two global questions (P<0.01). The dental caries group had the highest score of the full scale, followed by the malocclusion group; the healthy group had the lowest score (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    The Chinese version of CPQ8-10 demonstrates great reliability and validity and provides a theoretical basis for its application in Chinese children aged 8-10 years.

    Analysis of the willingness of community residents of Chengdu city to participate in various modes of family dental services and the factors influencing their decision
    Sun Guofang, Wu Kan, Hu Tao, Bao Chongyun, Zhong Yisi, Yin Wei
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  80-85.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.012
    Abstract ( 256 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (811KB) ( 155 )   Save
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    Objective

    To determine the various modes of family dental services available in Chengdu city, China and to analyze the willingness of community residents to sign the contract for these services and the factors influencing their decision to do so.

    Methods

    From September 2020 to October 2020, nine communities in Chengdu city were sampled via stratified multiple-stage random sampling and surveyed by sending questionnaires. The questionnaire sought to gather information on the residents’ sociodemographic characteristics, their intention to participate in family dental services, and determine their knowledge of oral health cognition and behavior.

    Results

    A total of 1 227 valid questionnaires were collected. Among the community residents surveyed, 24.78% stated that they were willing to participate in family dental services. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors affecting the residents’ willingness to participate in various modes of family dental services were age (OR=0.571, P<0.05), type of medical insurance (OR=1.534, P<0.05), level of oral health knowledge (OR=1.363, P<0.05), oral health behavior [including the number of time they brush their teeth (OR=1.464, P<0.05), and the frequency of seeking oral medical treatment(OR=1.780, 2.174, P<0.05)].

    Conclusion

    The demand of community residents for the family dental services needs to be improved. Young and middle-aged people showed more enthusiasm than older adults to seek family dental services. The type of medical insurance they have and the level of their health literacy were the primary factors that influence their decision to seek such services. Information and education campaigns on oral health should be strengthened to enhance the public’s knowledge of this important aspect of hygiene and overall health and promote the development of various modes of family dental services.

    Assessment of the antimicrobial effects of sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis by D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy
    Ma Yuying, Lu Xin, Zhang Lijuan, Liu Yuhan, Li Fan, Tan Kaixuan, Zhang Ying, Li Xiuzhen, Yang Fang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  86-92.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.013
    Abstract ( 268 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (2145KB) ( 157 )   Save
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    Objective

    To systematically evaluate the feasibility of D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy in drug resistance research and test the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)to sodium hypochlorite.

    Methods

    1) The growth of E. faecalis in different doses of D2O and the regularity of D2O intake were evaluated through absorbance measurement and D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy to examine the universality of D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy in bacterial resistance research. 2) Broth dilution method and absorbance measurement were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NaClO against E. faecalis and the MIC based on metabolic activity (MIC-MA) in vitro via D2O-labeled single-cell raman micro-spectroscopy.

    Results

    1) The growth of E. faecalis was not significantly inhibited by ≤40% D2O in the medium. E. faecalis could actively metabolize D2O and exhibit a C-D ratio in specific areas of Raman micro-spectroscopy results. The C-D ratio of E. faecalis at the stationary phase was positively correlated with D2O concentration. 2) The MIC and MIC-MA of NaClO against E. faecalis were 0.45 and 0.9 g·L-1, respectively. The concentration of MIC-MA was twice that of MIC.

    Conclusion

    D2O-labeled single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy is important in screening antimicrobial agents and evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. It is suitable for evaluating the effect of drugs on bacterial metabolic activities. NaClO showed an effective antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis. E. faecalis ceased propagation yet remained highly metabolically active when it was exposed to NaClO at the MIC level. The metabolic activity of most cells was inhibited only when they were exposed to NaClO at the MIC-MA level.

    Porphyromonas gingivalis upregulates calbindin 1 and thus promotes the proliferation of gingival epithelial cells
    Zhang Yuwei, He Yuxuan, Ding Yi, Liu Chengcheng.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  93-99.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.014
    Abstract ( 445 )   HTML ( 46 )   PDF(pc) (2708KB) ( 298 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aims to investigate the effect of calbindin 1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells affected by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)invitro.

    Methods

    A model of P. gingivalis infecting CA9-22 was established in vitro. At 24 h after infection, the expression of calbindin 1 (CALB1) was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The expression of CALB1 was further inhibited by RNA interference. Cell proliferation was detected by BrdU analysis, and cell apoptosis was detected by caspase 3 activity. The expression of MDM2 and p53 was detected by Western blot analysis.

    Results

    P. gingivalis infection upregulated the expression of CALB1 in CA9-22 cells with multiplicity-dependent manner. CALB1 promoted the proliferation of CA9-22 cells, increased the expression of MDM2, and inhibited the expression of p53. Inhibiting CALB1 expression did not affect the inhibitory effect of P. gingivalis infection on CA9-22 apoptosis.

    Conclusion

    P. gingivalis infection can promote the proliferation of CA9-22 cells by increasing CALB1 expression. The related mechanism may be associated with MDM2-p53.

    Gingival plasma cell granuloma: a case report
    Chen Dihui, Zhao Hanqing, Jia Baolong, Yang Rongyu, Duan Kaiwen
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  100-105.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.015
    Abstract ( 460 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF(pc) (4283KB) ( 242 )   Save
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    Plasma cell granuloma is extremely rare in the oral cavity. This paper reports a case of plasma cell granuloma in the oral cavity and reviews the literature. In this case, the plasma cell granuloma occurred in the gingiva, which was bright red and granular. The lesion was resected and diagnosed as gingival plasma cell granuloma by clinical pathological examination. Four months follow-up after operation surgery showed no signs of recurrence. Although gingival plasma cell granuloma is rare, it is easily confused with related diseases and should be identified and followed up closely.

    Warthin-like mucoepidermoid carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, mucinous metaplasia involving Warthin tumor: three case reports
    Zhao Haowei, Han Qi, Sun Xiaoqin, Wang Yun, Chen Yu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  106-110.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.016
    Abstract ( 279 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (2130KB) ( 338 )   Save
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    Warthin-like mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a recently identified MEC variant of the salivary gland. MEC morphologically mimics Warthin tumor (WT) but harbors the same chromosomal translocation t (11; 19) (q21; p13) as MEC. Thus, differential diagnosis is crucial. MEC involving WT is extremely rare in salivary glands. In this study, we reported a case of Warthin-like MEC, a case of MEC co-existing with WT, and a case of mucinous metaplasia in WT. We also discussed the possible link between WT and MEC.

    Minimally invasive treatment of calcified root canals in anterior teeth with digital guide technique
    Gao Yuxuan, Wang Liu, Fu Yujie, Yang Fan, Zhang Lan, Huang Dingming
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2022, 40(1):  111-122.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2022.01.017
    Abstract ( 1051 )   HTML ( 1916006545 )   PDF(pc) (5168KB) ( 1549 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aims to establish a minimally invasive treatment using a customized digital template and a miniaturized bur for pulp canal obliteration (PCO).

    Methods

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital oral scans of patients diagnosed with PCO in anterior teeth were obtained. Root canal morphology was reconstructed to accurately show the location, length, and direction of obliteration. A digital template was designed and fabricated using visual design software and 3D printing technology and used as guide for the miniaturized bur and drill sleeve during calcified tissue removal. A conventional root canal treatment was performed after the lumen of the root canal was reached.

    Results

    In both cases, the planned access cavity and glide paths were successfully established. In case 1, the deviated angle of the access cavity was 1.37°±0.07°, the deviation at the bottom of the miniaturized bur was 0.08-0.81 mm, the deviation at the tip of the bur was 0.05-1.13 mm, and difference in substance loss was 0.84-4.25 mm³. In case 2, the deviated angle of the access cavity was 3.09° ± 0.12°, the deviation at the bottom of the bur was 0.09-0.68 mm, the deviation at the tip of the bur was 0.29-0.66 mm, and the difference in substance loss was 0.55-3.79 mm3.

    Conclusion

    Micro-guided endodontics is a novel approach for localizing and negotiating obliterated root canals and guarantees long-term prognosis without requiring excessive hard tissue removal.