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Table of Content
01 February 2021, Volume 39 Issue 1
  • Clinical application and research progress of digital complete denture
    Zhou Yongsheng, Sun Yuchun, Wang Yong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  1-8.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.001
    Abstract ( 1686 )   HTML ( 286 )   PDF(pc) (1236KB) ( 2169 )   Save
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    Digital technologies use high-precision three-dimensional scanning, intelligence-aided design software, and multi-axis numerical control milling or 3D printing, which can produce restorations with reliable precision and suitable function. However, the development of digital technologies in the field of complete denture restoration has been slow due to the complexity of prosthesis. This review article introduces the current research status and clinical applications of digital complete dentures in prosthodontic clinics and dental laboratories to provide beneficial references to prosthodontists and dental technicians.

    Questions about the numerical value and quantitative data transfer of tooth preparation—from experience guidance to digital guidance
    Yu Haiyang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  9-19.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.002
    Abstract ( 1440 )   HTML ( 274 )   PDF(pc) (2747KB) ( 2263 )   Save
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    Tooth preparation is a common operation in dental clinical practice. This procedure is irreversible and invasive from the point of view of tooth preservation. Conditions of the abutment tooth, treatment methods, and restoration materials for target restoration affect tooth preparation. To achieve the goals of tooth tissue preservation, dental pulp protection, and periodontal health, dentistry professionals agreed on the importance of minimizing the amount of tooth reduction. The foundations for realizing this consensus are as follows. First, the available restoration materials with improved comprehensive performance need less target restoration space. Next, teeth can be prepared under a digital guide, and the real-time measurement of restoration space can be verified due to the invention of digital technologies for the analysis of the quantity and shape of the prepared tooth and tooth measurement. Moreover, guiding methods for preparation have been developed from freehand operation under the naked eye based on accumulated personal experience to digital-guidance jointing microscope. These innovations indicate the creation of a prototype of guided prosthodontics that is precise and applies real-time measurement throughout the process of tooth preparation. From the perspective of the evolution of digital, guided, and micro prosthodontics, this article raised seven questions about the numerical value and quantitative data transfer of tooth preparation and evaluated the authenticity of existing numerical requirements from the perspective of the four elements of measurement. Identifying unified measuring methods and developing measuring tools with a precision of hundred or ten microns will be the key to solving the problem about the authenticity of numerical measurement. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the methods of how to control tooth reduction and explains in depth why the currently dominant tooth preparation technology, which is based on empiricism, cannot effectively achieve the goals in digital prosthodontics. Therefore, we strongly call for rebuilding the digital foundation of prosthodontic treatment immediately.

    Transcriptome array screening and verification of oral leukoplakia carcinogenesis-related hypoxia-responsive gene and microRNA
    Shi Linjun, Yang Xi, Wu Suning, Liu Wei
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  20-25.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.003
    Abstract ( 647 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF(pc) (1153KB) ( 566 )   Save
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    Objective

    To study the hypoxia response gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the pathogenesis and progression of oral leukoplakia (OLK).

    Methods

    Affymetrix GeneChip human transcriptome array 2.0 was used to detect the transcriptome of normal mucosa, low-risk OLK, high-risk OLK, and early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Gene ontology function analysis was used to screen genes and key miRNAs whose biological role is hypoxia response. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase ch-ain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the expression of hypoxia response genes and miRNAs.

    Results

    A total of 7 different genes of hypoxia response between normal mucosa and low-risk OLK, 10 genes between low-risk and high-risk OLK, and 21 genes between high-risk OLK and SCC were identified. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, chemokine cc-motif ligand 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 mRNA and miR-21 in normal mucosa, OLK, and SCC increased in a stepwise manner. The expression difference between OLK and SCC was statistically significant and consistent with the results of transcriptome array.

    Conclusion

    The hypoxia response gene and related miRNA play roles in the development and progression of OLK.

    MicroRNA-146a regulates the production of cytokines in lymphocytes stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide
    Si Yuting, Song Jinhua, Fang Zhen, Han Xiaozhe, Jiang Shaoyun
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  26-31.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.004
    Abstract ( 322 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF(pc) (1011KB) ( 307 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) on the production of cytokines in lymphocytes stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

    Methods

    Lymphocytes were harvested from mouse spleen and cultured in vitro. The cells were treated with P. gingivalis LPS, miR-146a mimic, or miR-146a inhibitor. Scramble RNA served as the negative control of mimic and inhibitor. The production of inflammatory cytokines was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Results

    Compared with non-LPS-stimulated group, P. gingivalis LPS could increase the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and IL-10 (P<0.05) and decrease the mRNA level of osteoprotectin (OPG) (P<0.05). However, it did not significantly change the secretion of OPG. Compared with the negative control group, miR-146a mimic upregulated the levels of IL-10 and OPG (P<0.05), downregulated IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL (P<0.05). Meanwhile, miR-146a inhibitor had a reverse effect on these cytokines (P<0.05) in P.gingivalis LPS-treated-lymphocytes.

    Conclusion

    MiR-146a can provide a suitable microenvironment for bone formation by preventing the inflammatory effects of P.gingivalis LPS through the inhibition of IL-1β, IL-6, and RNAKL, thereby enhancing IL-10 and OPG.

    Knockout fth1b affects early mineralization of zebrafish pharyngeal teeth
    Zhou Chunyan, Zheng Xuedan, Yang Deqin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  32-37.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.005
    Abstract ( 360 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (3742KB) ( 247 )   Save
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    Objective

    A study was conducted to explore the expression pattern and function of ferritin heavy polypeptide gene (fth1b) in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth development and lay the foundation for subsequent research on teeth development and mineralization.

    Methods

    The zebrafish embryos were harvested at 56, 72, 96, and 120 h after ferti-lization. The expression of fth1b in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth development was detected by whole embryo in situ hybri-dization and compared with the known pharyngeal teeth marker dlx2b. The specific knockout of fth1b gene was performed using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing technology. The development of zebrafish pharyngeal teeth was detected in the fth1b-/- mutant.

    Results

    The expression pattern of fth1b gene was very similar to that of the known zebrafish pharyngeal teeth marker dlx2b and was specifically expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal teeth during development. After the specific knockout of the gene fth1b, the earliest gene that can be detect in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth-pitx2 was expressed normally during early development. The dlx2b expression was not significantly different from that of wild type zebrafish, but the mineralization of pharyngeal teeth in the mutant was weaker than that of wild type zebrafish.

    Conclusion

    The gene fth1b is specifically expressed in zebrafish pharyngeal teeth and acts on their early mineralization.

    Influence of different types of rapid maxillary expansion on root resorption: a systematic review
    Xia Kai, Sun Wentian, Yu Liyuan, Liu Jun
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  38-47.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.006
    Abstract ( 395 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF(pc) (1803KB) ( 595 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to assess the influence of different types of rapid maxillary expansion on root resorption (RR).

    Methods

    Literature searches were carried out electronically in five English and two Chinese databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies were included. The data were extracted by three authors. The risk of bias in the RCTs and nonrandomized studies were assessed in accordance with corresponding scales.

    Results

    Among the 400 articles identified, seven were included for the final analysis. Three studies were graded as high value of evidence, while two and another two studies were graded as moderate value and low value, respectively. According to the available evidence, the tooth-borne maxillary expansion caused more obvious RR of anchorage teeth than the bone-borne one. In addition, the Haas-type palatal acrylic pads could not effectively reduce the degree of RR. The difference in the design of the retainer between the tooth-borne maxillary expansion (the use of a band or wire framework to connect the anchorage tooth) did not cause the difference in the incidence and degree of RR.

    Conclusion

    Clinical evidence suggested that bone-borne maxillary expansion may decrease the amount of RR, while the amounts of resorption did not significantly differ between Haas and Hyrax and between different retainer types of Hyrax.

    Curative effect evaluation by using Andrews' six elements for completed orthodontic treatment cases
    Liu Chao- feng, Xu Yanhua, Liu Yan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  48-52.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.007
    Abstract ( 1051 )   HTML ( 119 )   PDF(pc) (890KB) ( 1088 )   Save
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    Objective

    To assess the treatment outcome of patients who completed their orthodontic treatment by using Andrews' six elements and the American Board of Orthodontic (ABO) objective grading system (OGS); to determine whether Andrews' six elements can be used as a new assessment system for patients who completed their orthodontic treatment.

    Methods

    A total of 160 patients who completed their orthodontic treatment were included in the study. The participants were randomly selected from patients who completed their orthodontic procedures in Kunming Medical University Affiliated Stomatological Hospital during the period of 2015 to 2019. The retrospective completed cases were examined in accordance with the Andrews' six elements and ABO measuring scales. Scores were assigned to each tooth in each category. All the measurement items in both evaluation criteria, the composite category score, and the total score were calculated. The passing and potential passing rates of the completed cases were compared with two measuring scales via the Chi-square test.

    Results

    The passing rate for the evaluation of cases by using the Andrews' six elements measuring scale was 83.8%, and that for the evaluation of cases by using the ABO measuring scale was 86.3%. The differences in achieving the standard between the cases of Andrews' six elements and ABO-OGS via the Chi-square test were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The mean Andrews' six elements score for the completed cases: the category of the anteroposterior change in position of the incisors contributed the most, whereas the core discrepancy presented the least percentage in total scores. In ABO-OGS, alignment and marginal ridges contributed the most, whereas interproximal contacts exhibited the least percentage in total scores.

    Conclusion

    The performance of Andrews' six elements was comparable with that of ABO-OGS in assessing the treatment outcome of patients who completed their orthodontic treatment. Andrews' six elements can be used as a new system for assessing the treatment outcome of patients who completed their orthodontic treatment. It demonstrated particular advantage in controlling facial profile, and had just completed material of patients who completed their orthodontic treatment it can measure. The Andrews' six elements measuring scale is convenient to disseminate and use.

    Analysis of dental caries and the impact factors of caries in children aged 3-5 years old in Changdu, Xizang
    Zhang Jiali, Yao Jun, Ren Qing Cuomu, Xu Yuanhong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  53-57.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.008
    Abstract ( 358 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (815KB) ( 350 )   Save
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    Objective

    To investigate caries status and its impact factors in preschool children in plateau and to provide reference for caries prevention in highlands.

    Methods

    Examination of caries was performed on 1 597 children aged 3-5 years old in 11 kindergartens in Changdu, Xizang, in accordance with the 4th National Oral Health Survey standards and methods. Their parents were surveyed with the questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habit and consciousness about oral health and related factors. All the data were collected and analyzed.

    Results

    The prevalence of caries among children aged 3-5 years old in Changdu was 52.85%, with dmft index of 2.44. The caries rate and dmft of children aged 3 years old were lower than those of children aged 4 and 5 years old (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the caries rate between males and females (P>0.05). Single-factor analysis showed that the frequency of brushing teeth more than twice a day, low frequency of eating sweets, high frequency of drinking butter tea, and regular oral examination can reduce the rate of caries (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the frequency of eating sweets, drinking butter tea, and oral examination are related impact factors of caries.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of ca-ries in children aged 3-5 years old in Changdu increases with aging. Good oral hygiene and eating habits and regular oral examination can reduce the rate of caries.

    Association between periodontal indexes and biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid and preterm birth in pregnancy: a nested case-control study
    Ye Chanjuan, Wu Min, Chen Shaowu, Yang Xiuqiao, Li Huijun, Zhu Sujun, Zhou Fangming, Hao Ying
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  58-63.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.009
    Abstract ( 287 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (1129KB) ( 533 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontal indexes and biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and preterm birth (PTB) in pregnancy, as well as to assess the clinical value of these indexes as predictors of PTB.

    Methods

    A nested case-control study was conducted. A total of 300 systematically healthy pregnant women were selected within 36 weeks of gestation and grouped according to the enrolled weeks. Periodontal indexes, including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), and five biomarkers in GCF, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured at the enrolled date. The detailed birth outcome was recorded.

    Results

    Only women at 24-28 weeks of gestation per PTB case (four full-term births) were selected as controls subjects, PTB displayed significantly greater GI, BI, and 8-OHdG (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that BI and 8-OHdG were the dependent risk factors of PTB (OR=5.90, P=0.034; OR=1.18, P=0.045, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of BI and 8-OHdG were 0.80 and 0.69, and that of the combined detection was 0.82, which was larger than the individual detection, although the differences were not significant (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Increased BI and 8-OHdG at 24-28 weeks of gestation are risk factors for PTB. Their combined detection may have some value in the prediction of PTB, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to explore it and thus provide experiment evidence for establishing an early warning system for PTB in pregnant women with periodontal disease.

    Effects of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma
    Wang Shaoru, Sun Wei, Zhou Nan, Zhao Kai, Li Wenjian, Chi Zengpeng, Wang Ying, Wang Qimin, Tong Lei, He Zongxuan, Han Hongyu, Chen Zhenggang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  64-73.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.010
    Abstract ( 501 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF(pc) (4304KB) ( 272 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransfe-rase (Icmt) through small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).

    Methods

    Three siRNA were designed and constructed for the Icmt gene sequence and were then transfected into TSCC cells CAL-27 and SCC-4 to silence Icmt expression. The tested cells were divided as follows: RNA interference groups Icmt-siRNA-1, Icmt-siRNA-2, and Icmt-siRNA-3, negative control group, and blank control group. The transfection efficiency of siRNA was detected by the fluorescent group Cy3-labeled siRNA, and the expression of Icmt mRNA was screened by quantitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) selected the experimental group for subsequent experiments. The expression of Icmt, RhoA, Cyclin D1, p21, extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) were analyzed by Western blot. The proliferation abilities of TSCC cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 assay. The change in apoptosis was detected by AnnexinV-APC/propidium staining (PI) assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry.

    Results

    The expression of Icmt mRNA and protein in TSCC cells significantly decreased after Icmt-siRNA transfection (P<0.05). No significant difference in RhoA mRNA and protein expression was detected (P>0.05), but the expression of RhoA membrane protein decreased compared with the negative control group and blank control groups (P<0.05). Cyclin D1 expression decreased, whereas p21 expression significantly increased and the relative expression of ERK protein in the experimental group did not significantly different that in the control group (P>0.05). However, the phosphorylation level of ERK was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The cell cycles of TSCC CAL-27 and SCC-4 were altered in G1/S, cell proliferation activity was inhibited, and apoptosis was induced (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Silencing Icmt can effectively downregulate its expression in TSCC cells, reduce the RhoA membrane targeting localization and cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Thus, Icmt may be a potential gene therapy target for TSCC.

    Sex determining region Y-box 9 induced microtubule formation and epithelial⁃mesenchymal transition in human oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL27 cells
    Huang Sheng, Zhang Qiyuan, He Aie, Li Hongbo, Zhang Zhixing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  74-80.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.011
    Abstract ( 253 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (2146KB) ( 268 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to explore the effect of sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) on the microtubule formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) CAL27 and the underlying mechanism.

    Methods

    SOX9-shRNA1 and SOX9-shRNA2 were designed and synthesized and then transfected into CAL27 cells. The expression of SOX9 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Microtubule formation assay was used to detect the change in the number of microtubule nodules after interfering with SOX9. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the Vimentin content. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of EMT marker molecules and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related proteins, such as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Fibronectin, Wnt, β-catenin, T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4).

    Results

    The expression level of SOX9 significantly decreased after transfection with SOX9-shRNA1 and SOX9-shRNA2 in CAL27 cells (F=578.000, P=0.000; F=96.850, P=0.000). Interference with SOX9 inhibited the EMT of OSCC. After interference with SOX9, the number of tubules and Vimentin positive cells decreased significantly (F=169.700, P=0.000). The expression level of E-cadherin significantly increased (F=181.400, P=0.000). The expression levels of N-cadherin, Fibronectin, Wnt, β-catenin, and TCF-4 proteins significantly decreased (N-cadherin: F=101.400, P=0.000; Fibronectin: F=122.300, P=0.000; Wnt: F=70.290, P=0.000; β-catenin: F=81.740, P=0.000; TCF-4: F=37.020, P=0.000).

    Conclusion

    Interference with SOX9 decreased Vimentin content and inhibited the microtubule formation and protein expression of EMT marker molecules, as well as the expression of proteins related to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, SOX9 can induce microtubule formation and EMT in CAL27, which was related to the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation.

    Effect of chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene on the invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL27 cells
    Hu Kaili, Fan Xin, Hu Wenting, Li Hongli, Tang Qinghua, Sun Xuehui
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  81-87.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.012
    Abstract ( 314 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (2833KB) ( 221 )   Save
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    Objective

    A study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L) influencing the invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and to provide a new target for clinical inhibition of invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Methods

    Ualcan website was used to analyze the expression of CHD1L in normal epithelial tissue and primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and to analyze the effect of lymph node metastasis on the expression of CHD1L in tissues with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The relationship between CHD1L expression and the survival rate of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was tested by the GEPIA website. Western blot was used to quantify the levels of CHD1L protein in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma CAL27 and immortalized human skin keratinocyte cell HaCaT. After knocking down CAL27 in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells with an RNA interference plasmid, the cells were designated as SiCHD1L/CAL27 and Scr/CAL27. Western blot was utilized to detect the expression of CHD1L in each group of cells. The change in CAL27 cell proliferation ability was tested by EdU proliferation test after CHD1L knockdown. The change of cell migration ability of each group cells was tested through the wound healing assay. Western blot was used to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker E-cadherin and Vimentin protein expression levels.

    Results

    Ualcan database showed that the expression of CHD1L in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues was higher than in normal epithelial tissues and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues with lymph node metastasis. GEPIA website analysis showed that the overall survival rate of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with high expression of CHD1L was significantly lower than that of patients with low expression. Western blot results showed that CHD1L expression in human tongue squamous carcinoma cells CAL27 was higher than that of human normal skin cells HaCaT. CHD1L expression in SiCHD1L/CAL27 cells was much lower than that in Scr/CAL27 cells. Results of EdU proliferation experiments showed the significant reduction in the cell proliferation ability of the SiCHD1L/CAL27 cells. Results of the wound healing experiments showed the reduction in the migration capacity of the SiCHD1L/CAL27 cells. The expression of E-cadherin increased, whereas that of Vimentin decreased, in SiCHD1L/CAL27 cells.

    Conclusion

    CHD1L promoted the EMT, proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Research progress on two-component signal transduction systems in Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Yao Ke, Cai Jingyi, Zhao Lei, Wu Yafei, Zhao Zhihe, Shen Daonan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  88-93.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.013
    Abstract ( 428 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (903KB) ( 470 )   Save
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    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative oral anaerobe, is considered to be a major pathogenic agent involved in the onset and progression of chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis must be able to perceive and respond to the complicated changes in host to survive the environmental challenges, in which the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play critical roles by connecting input signals to cellular physiological output. Canonical TCS consists of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator that functions via a phosphorylation cascade. In this review, the roles of TCSs in P. gingivalis were demonstrated by illustrating the target genes and modulation modes, which may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms in future studies.

    Developments of specialized pro-resolving mediators in periodontitis
    Liu Yinchen
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  94-98.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.014
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    Resolution of inflammation plays an important part in maintaining homeostasis. It is an actively programmed progress involving multiple immune cells and mediators. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) derived from Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids include resolvins, protectins and maresins, and they exert abilities in the resolution of inflammation, host defense, organ protection, and tissue generation. Periodontitis is an inflammatory and destructive disease in the periodontal tissue initiated by dental plaque. Inadequate proinflammatory or proresolving responses, or the imbalance between the two, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies have shown that activating specialized receptors SPMs displayed multiple biological effects towards periodontitis, including resolution of inflammation, alveolar bone protection, periodontal tissue regeneration, and pathogen resistance. Thus, the relationship between SPM and periodontitis and the potentials and challenges in SPM application were reviewed.

    Advances on mechanism and treatment of salivary gland in radiation injury
    Li Shensui, Wu Chenzhou, Qiao Xianghe, Li Chunjie, Li Longjiang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  99-104.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.015
    Abstract ( 376 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF(pc) (916KB) ( 506 )   Save
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    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent tumour in head and neck malignant. The current treatment is mainly based on surgery therapy, radiation therapy and chemical therapy. Meanwhile, there are many a defect in the treatment. For example, there are many defects in radiotherapy. Radioactive salivatitis is the most common. In addition, there are a series of changes such as dry mouth, oral mucositis, rampant dental caries, and radioactive osteomyelitis of jaw, which cause swallowing, chewing problems, and taste dysfunction. Currently, the research on radioactive salivatitis is progressing rapidly, but its mechanism is more complication. This paper review aims to summarize the research progress in this field.

    A review about the application of phonetic methods in deciding the jaws relation of complete denture
    Zhang Xixi, Liu Jianzhang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  105-107.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.016
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    Speech could be used, because it was a neuromuscular movement without teeth contact. The method was stable, however it was used more in vertical relation deciding. More study was needed in the horizontal relation deciding. This article was to explain why and how to use phonetic method to decide jaws relation, through literature review.

    Research advances in cartilage stem cells markers and induced differentiation
    Mou Tingchen, Feng Jianying
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  108-114.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.017
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    Cartilage stem cells (CSCs) are cells that self-proliferate, have surface antigen expression, and have multidirectional differentiation potential in the articular cartilage. CSCs, as an ideal source of stem cells, has a good application prospect in stem cell therapy. This article reviews the CSCs markers, cartilage differentiation signaling pathway, and clinical treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Application of polymeric porcelain color-masking cast posts in the aesthetic repair of anterior teeth: a case report
    Lou Yuxin, Ren Wei, Dong Bo, Yang Xingqiang, Zhao Lei, Lu Yuqing, Gan Xueqi, Yue Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(1):  115-120.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.018
    Abstract ( 553 )   HTML ( 65 )   PDF(pc) (4091KB) ( 497 )   Save
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    Many patients with large-area tooth defect need cast post-core crown restoration. However, the color defect of the cast post-core will affect the final restorative result, especially that of the anterior teeth. A new technology of color masking by applying CERAMAGE polymeric porcelain to the cast metal post-core surface improves the color of a full-ceramic restoration of anterior teeth and may provide a new alternative for the aesthetic repair of anterior teeth with a large area of defective tooth.