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Table of Content
01 April 2023, Volume 41 Issue 2
  • Dental implant treatment in vascularized bone flaps after jaw reconstruction
    Shan Xiaofeng, Cai Zhigang.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  123-128.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2023005
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    Jaw defects caused by various reasons often seriously affect appearance and function. The goal of the treatment of oral and maxillofacial tumors should include the cure of the tumor and the restoration of premorbid function. The development of microsurgery and digital surgery technology has promoted the development of jaw reconstruction with vascularized free bone flap. Good appearance and improved predictability could be obtained with the help of preope-rative visual design. How to rehabilitate occlusal function on the reconstructed jaw and improve the quality of life of patients has become an important research direction. This article discusses the challenge of jaw reconstruction, the selection of vascularized bone flap, the choice of implant timing, the treatment of peri-implant soft tissue, and the influence of radiotherapy on implants after jaw reconstruction.

    Two-stage alveolar bone grafting for nasal floor reconstruction in adult cleft patients
    Li Chenghao, Shi Bing.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  129-133.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022344
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    Alveolar cleft is one of the key links of cleft lip and palate reconstruction due to its close relationship with tooth and jaw coordination and nasolabial deformity. The alveolar bone graft repairs the hole in the gum ridge and stabilizes the bone arch, providing better support for the base of the nose and new bone for the roots of the developing teeth to grow into. Unfortunately, bone graft failure in the traditional way, even among minor clefts, bony hypoplasia, or absence that affects the nasal base and piriform rim, is common. Two-stage alveolar bone grafting, which has advantages in addressing the underlying skeleton and deficiency, could be an optional surgical procedure for nasal floor reconstruction in adult patients with a broad alveolar cleft.

    Clinical decision making of implant guidance methods guided by new classification of surgical area mouth ope-ning
    Yu Haiyang, Wu Jiacheng, Hu Nan.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  134-139.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022386
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    When selecting implant guidance methods or judging whether the patient can be implanted, many doctors ignore or only use visual inspection to estimate a patient’s mouth opening. This phenomenon often leads to failure to complete the implantation due to insufficient mouth opening or the deflection of the implant due to limited angle, resulting in the high incidence of corresponding complications. The main reason is that doctors lack accurate analysis and control of the overall geometric conditions of the intraoral surgical area, and three-dimensional position blocking of surgical instruments occurs during the operation. In the past, mouth opening was defined as the distance between the incisor edges of the upper and lower central incisors when the patient opens his mouth widely, and the implant area could be in any missing tooth position. When it is in the posterior tooth area, the specific measurement scheme of the mouth opening could not be simply equivalent to the previous measurement method in the anterior tooth area. However, how to measure quickly and conveniently the mouth opening of any surgical area to determine whether it could be implanted and meet the needs of the selected guidance method remains unclear. This paper introduces new concepts, establishes new classification and corresponding accurate measurement scheme of implant area, and establishes a decision tree of implant methods guided by the actually measured value. Results provide a quantitative basis for rational formulation and implementation of implant treatment.

    Effect of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 on the mineralization of cementoblasts and its related mechanism
    Wu Hao, Li Ying, Wang Yuzhuo, Yu Jize, Bao Xingfu, Hu Min
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  140-148.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022375
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    Objective To investigate the effect of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 (rhFGF21) on the proliferation and mineralization of cementoblasts and its mechanism. Methods Hematoxylin eosin, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression and distribution of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in rat periodontal tissues and cementoblasts (OCCM-30), separately. Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to detect the proliferation of OCCM-30 under treatment with rhFGF21. Alkaline phosphatase staining and Alizarin Red staining were used to detect the mineralization state of OCCM-30 after 3 and 7 days of mineralization induction. The transcription and protein expression of the osteogenic-related genes Runx2 and Osterix were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The expression levels of genes of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in OCCM-30 were detected through PCR array analysis. Results FGF21 was expressed in rat periodontal tissues and OCCM-30. Although rhFGF21 had no significant effect on the proliferation of OCCM-30, treatment with 50 ng/mL rhFGF21 could promote the mineralization of OCCM-30 cells after 7 days of mineralization induction. The transcriptional levels of Runx2 and Osterix increased significantly at 3 days of mineralization induction and decreased at 5 days of mineralization induction. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels of Runx2 and Osterix increased during mineralization induction. rhFGF21 up-regulated Bmpr1b protein expression in cells. Conclusion rhFGF21 can promote the mineralization ability of OCCM-30. This effect is related to the activation of the TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway.

    Effect of tumor-stromal fibroblasts on the biological behavior of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma cells in vitro
    Hou Yali, Li Hexiang, Song Peng, Yang Yanxiao, Hao Yali, Liu Huijuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  149-156.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022314
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the effects of tumor-stromal fibroblasts (TSFs) on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma (SPA) cells in vitro. Methods Salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma cells (SPACs), TSFs, and peri-tumorous normal fibroblasts (NFs) were obtained by tissue primary culture and identified by immunocytochemical staining. The conditioned medium was obtained from TSF and NF in logarithmic phase. SPACs were cultured by conditioned medium and treated by TSF (group TSF-SPAC) and NF (group NF-SPAC). SPACs were used as the control group. The proliferation, invasion, and migration of the three groups of cells were detected by MTT, transwell, and scratch assays, respectively. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the three groups was tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Immunocytochemical staining showed positive vimentin expression in NF and TSF. Results also indicated the weak positive expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in TSFs and the negative expression of α-SMA and FAP in NFs. MTT assay showed that cell proliferation in the TSF-SPAC group was significantly different from that in the NF-SPAC and SPAC groups (P<0.05). Cell proliferation was not different between the NF-SPAC and SPAC groups (P>0.05). Transwell and scratch assays showed no difference in cell invasion and migration among the groups (P>0.05). ELISA showed that no significant difference in VEGF expression among the three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion TSFs may be involved in SPA biological behavior by promoting the proliferation of SPACs but has no effect on the invasion and migration of SPACs in vitro. Hence, TSF may be a new therapeutic target in SPA treatment.

    Study on the mechanism of curcumin in the treatment of periodontitis through network pharmacology and mole-cular docking
    Yang Jingmei, Zhou Ziliang, Wu Yafei, Nie Min
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  157-164.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022370
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    Objective This study aims to explore the therapeutic targets of curcumin in periodontitis through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. Methods Targets of curcumin and periodontitis were predicted by different databases, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network constructed by String revealed the interaction between curcumin and periodontitis. The key target genes were screened for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding potential of curcumin to periodontitis. Results A total of 672 periodontitis-related disease targets and 107 curcumin-acting targets were obtained from the databases, and 20 key targets were screened. The GO and KEGG analyses of the 20 targets showed that curcumin might play a therapeutic role through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) signaling pathways. Molecular docking analysis showed that curcumin had good binding potential with multiple targets. Conclusion The potential key targets and molecular mechanisms of curcumin in treating periodontitis provide a theoretical basis for new drug development and clinical applications.

    Effect of graphene-oxide-modified osteon-like concentric microgrooved surface on the osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages
    Wang Hong, Wu Qinglin, Lai Yingzhen, Cai Yihuang.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  165-174.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022354
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of new biomimetic micro/nano surfaces on the osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages by simulating natural osteons for the design of concentric circular structures and modifying graphene oxide (GO). Methods The groups were divided into smooth titanium surface group (SS), concentric microgrooved titanium surface group (CMS), and microgroove modified with GO group (GO-CMS). The physicochemical properties of the material surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the modified material surface on the cell biological behavior of RAW264.7 was investigated by cell-activity assay, SEM, and laser confocal microscopy. The effect on the osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages was investiga-ted by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments. Results Macrophages were arranged in concentric circles along the microgrooves, and after modification with GO, the oxygen-containing groups on the surface of the material increased and hydrophilicity increased. Osteoclasts in the GO-CMS group were small in size and number and had the lowest TRAP expression. Although it promoted the proliferation of macrophages in the GO-CMS group, the expression of osteoclastic differentiation-related genes was lower than that in the SS group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Concentric circular microgrooves restricted the fusion of osteoclasts and the formation of sealing zones. Osteomimetic concentric microgrooves modified with GO inhibited the osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Effect of naringenin on the anti-inflammatory, vascularization, and osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells via the stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis stimulated by lipopolysaccharide
    Li Shenghong, Peng Shiyuan, Luo Xiaoling, Wang Yipei, Xu Xiaomei
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  175-184.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022293
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate how naringenin (Nar) affected the anti-inflammatory, vascula-rization, and osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanism. Methods Cell-counting kit-8 (CCK8), cell scratch test, and Transwell assay were used to investigate the proliferation and migratory capabilities of hPDLSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining, lumen-formation assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative timed polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of osteopontin (OPN), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), vascular endothlial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6. Results We observed that 10 μmol/L Nar could attenuate the inflammatory response of hPDLSCs stimulated by 10 μg/mL LPS and promoted their proliferation, migration, and vascularization differentiation. Furthermore, 0.1 μmol/L Nar could effectively restore the osteogenic differentiation of inflammatory hPDLSCs. The effects of Nar’s anti-inflammatory and promotion of osteogenic differentiation significantly decreased and inflammatory vascularization differentiation increased after adding AMD3100 (a specific CXCR4 inhibitor). Conclusion Nar demonstrated the ability to promote the anti-inflammatory, vascularization, and osteogenic effects of hPDLSCs stimulated by LPS, and the ability was associated with the stromal cell-derived factor/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis.

    Clinical and imaging features of eight cases of Ewing sarcoma of the jaw
    Feng Yinglian, Wang Tiemei, Lin Zitong, Zhang Lei, Huang Xiaofeng, Sun Guowen, Xia Shu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  185-189.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022325
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    Objective This study investigate the clinical and imaging features of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the jaw. Methods Eight cases of pathologically diagnosed ES of the jaw from January 2010 to June 2022 were included in the study. Clinical and radiological features were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the eight cases, the mean age at onset was 29.4 years, and the male to female ratio was 7∶1. The predilecting site was the posterior part of mandible, accounting for 75% of the cases. The lesions often exhibited early numbness of the lower lip and lymphadenopathy. The main radiographic manifestation of mandibular lesions was ill-defined radiolucency, mixed with fibrous or brush-like tumor matrix, and soft tissue mass. The maxillary ES lesions mainly presented as lytic bone destruction accompanied by adjacent soft tissue mass. Periosteal ossification was rarely seen. Conclusion The clinical and imaging characteristics of ES in the jaw are helpful for its diagnosis.

    One-year clinical observation of the effect of internal bleaching on pulpless discolored teeth
    Peng Bibo, Huang Jialin, Wang Jian.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  190-196.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022349
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    Objective This study aimed to observe the color rebound and rebound rates of non-pulp discolored teeth within 1 year after routine internal bleaching to guide clinical practice and prompt prognosis. Methods In this work, the efficacy of bleaching was observed in 20 patients. The color of discolored teeth was measured by using a computerized colorimeter before bleaching; immediately after bleaching; and at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months after bleaching. The L*, a*, and b* values of the color of cervical, mesial, and incisal parts of the teeth were obtained, and the color change amounts ΔE*, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb* were calculated. The overall rebound rate (P*) and the color rebound velocity (V*) were also analyzed over time. Results In 20 patients following treatment, the average ΔE* of tooth color change was 14.99. After bleaching, the neck and middle of the teeth ΔE* and ΔL* decreased in the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th months, and the differences were statistically significant. Meanwhile, from the 9th month after bleaching, the rebound speed was lower than that in the 1st month, and the difference was statistically significant. The incisal end of the tooth ΔE* and ΔL* decreased in the 6th, 9th, and 12th months after bleaching, and the differences were statistically significant. No significant difference was found in the rebound speed between time points. However, this rate settled after the 9th month, with an average color rebound rate of 30.11% in 20 patients. Conclusion The results indicated that internal bleaching could cause a noticeable color change on pulpless teeth. The color rebound after bleaching was mainly caused by lightness (L*), which gradually decreased with time, and it was slightly related to a* and b*. The color of the teeth after internal bleaching rebounded to a certain extent with time, but the color rebound speed became stable from the 9th month. Clinically, secondary internal bleaching can be considered at this time according to whether the colors of the affected tooth and the adjacent tooth are coordinated and depending on the patient’s needs.

    Effect of dental follicles in minimally invasive open-eruption technique of labially impacted maxillary central incisors
    Huang Jiayue, Liu Xian, Wang Yan, Bao Chongyun.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  197-202.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022413
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    Objective To summarize the open-eruption technique of impacted anterior maxillary teeth, this study reports a technically improved operation on surgical exposure based on dental follicles and evaluates post-treatment periodontal health considering the effect of dental follicles. Methods Patients who underwent open-eruption technique with unilateral labially impacted maxillary central incisors were selected. The impacted teeth were assigned to the experimental group, and the contralateral unimpacted maxillary central incisors were assigned to the control group. In the surgical exposure, the new technique makes use of dental follicles to manage the soft tissue, so as to preserve soft tissue for better aesthetic results and healthier periodontal tissue. Tooth length, root length, alveolar bone loss, and alveolar bone thickness were recorded after the therapy. Results A total of 17 patients with unilateral maxillary central incisor impaction were successfully treated. The tooth length and root length of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference between the impacted and homonym teeth, with a shorter length in the impacted tooth (P<0.05). More labial alveolar bone loss was found in the experimental group compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The outcomes of the cementoenamel junction width, pa- latal alveolar bone loss, and alveolar bone thickness did not indicate statistical significance between the experimental and control groups (P>0.05). Conclusion In the surgical exposure, the new technique uses dental follicles to manage the soft tissue and preserve it for better aesthetic results and healthier periodontal tissues.

    Analysis of congenital deciduous teeth absence and its permanent teeth phenotype
    Qiu Fenfang, Tang Zichun, Meng Shan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  203-207.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2021639
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of congenital deciduous teeth absence and its permanent teeth performance type by using panoramic radiographs. Methods A total of 15 749 panora-mic radiographs of 3-6-year-old children with deciduous dentition were collected from January 2020 to December 2021. The incidence of congenital deciduous teeth absence was observed, and the abnormality of permanent teeth was recor-ded. SPSS 24.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results The incidence of congenital deciduous teeth absence was 2.54% (400/15 749), which was found in 217 girls and 183 boys, and the difference between the genders was statistically significant (P=0.003). The absence of one and two deciduous teeth accounted for 99.75% (399/400) of the subjects. In addition, 92.63% (490/529) of mandibular deciduous lateral incisor was congenitally absent, 44.80% (237/529) of deciduous teeth was absent in the left jaw, and less than 55.20% (292/529) was absent in the right; the difference between them was statistically significant (P=0.017). The absence of 96.41% (510/529) deciduous teeth in the mandibular was significantly more than that of 3.59% (19/529) in the maxillary, and the difference between was statistically significant (P=0.000). Furthermore, 68.00% (272/400) and 32.00% (128/400) of deciduous teeth were absent in unilateral and bilateral, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.000). Four types of congenital deciduous teeth absence with permanent teeth were observed as follows: 1) 73.91% (391/529) of permanent teeth was absent; 2) 20.60% (109/529) of permanent teeth was not absent; 3) the number of fused permanent teeth accounted for 4.91% (26/529); 4) the number of supernumerary teeth was 0.57% (3/529). Conclusion Although the absence of congenital deciduous teeth is less common than that of permanent teeth, it affects deciduous and permanent teeth to some extent. Dentists should pay attention to trace and observe whether abnormalities are present in the permanent teeth and take timely measures to maintain children’s oral health.

    Construction of a caries diagnosis model based on microbiome novelty score
    Sun Yanfei, Lu Jie, Yang Jiazhen, Liu Yuhan, Liu Lu, Zeng Fei, Niu Yufen, Dong Lei, Yang Fang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  208-217.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022301
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    Objective This study aimed to analyze the bacteria in dental caries and establish an optimized dental-ca-ries diagnosis model based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) data of oral flora. Methods We searched the public databa-ses of microbiomes including NCBI, MG-RAST, EMBL-EBI, and QIITA and collected data involved in the relevant research on human oral microbiomes worldwide. The samples in the caries dataset (1 703) were compared with healthy ones (20 540) by using the microbial search engine (MSE) to obtain the microbiome novelty score (MNS) and construct a caries diagnosis model based on this index. Nonparametric multivariate ANOVA was used to analyze and compare the impact of different host factors on the oral flora MNS, and the model was optimized by controlling related factors. Finally, the effect of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results 1) The oral microbiota distribution obviously differed among people with various oral-health statuses, and the species richness and species diversity index decreased. 2) ROC curve was used to evaluate the caries data set, and the area under ROC curve was AUC=0.67. 3) Among the five hosts’ factors including caries status, country, age, decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT) indices, and sampling site displayed the strongest effect on MNS of samples (P=0.001). 4) The AUC of the model was 0.87, 0.74, 0.74, and 0.75 in high caries, medium caries, low caries samples in Chinese children, and mixed dental plaque samples after controlling host factors, respectively. Conclusion The model based on the analysis of 16S rRNA data of oral flora had good diagnostic efficiency.

    Prediction of pulp exposure risk of carious pulpitis based on deep learning
    Wang Li, Wu Fei, Xiao Mo, Chen Yu-xin, Wu Ligeng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  218-224.  doi:10.7518/gjkq.2023.2022418
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    Objective This study aims to predict the risk of deep caries exposure in radiographic images based on the convolutional neural network model, compare the prediction results of the network model with those of senior dentists, evaluate the performance of the model for teaching and training stomatological students and young dentists, and assist dentists to clarify treatment plans and conduct good doctor-patient communication before surgery. Methods A total of 206 cases of pulpitis caused by deep caries were selected from the Department of Stomatological Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from 2019 to 2022. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 104 cases of pulpitis were exposed during the decaying preparation period and 102 cases of pulpitis were not exposed. The 206 radiographic images collected were randomly divided into three groups according to the proportion: 126 radiographic images in the training set, 40 radiographic images in the validation set, and 40 radiographic images in the test set. Three convolutional neural networks, visual geometry group network (VGG), residual network (ResNet), and dense convolutional network (DenseNet) were selected to analyze the rules of the radiographic images in the training set. The radiographic images of the validation set were used to adjust the super parameters of the network. Finally, 40 radiographic images of the test set were used to evaluate the performance of the three network models. A senior dentist specializing in dental pulp was selected to predict whether the deep caries of 40 radiographic images in the test set were exposed. The gold standard is whether the pulp is exposed after decaying the prepared hole during the clinical operation. The prediction effect of the three network models (VGG, ResNet, and DenseNet) and the senior dentist on the pulp exposure of 40 radiographic images in the test set were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and F1 score to select the best network model. Results The best network model was DenseNet model, with AUC of 0.97. The AUC values of the ResNet model, VGG model, and the senior dentist were 0.89, 0.78, and 0.87, respectively. Accuracy was not statistically different between the senior dentist (0.850) and the DenseNet model (0.850)(P>0.05). Kappa consistency test showed moderate reliability (Kappa=0.6>0.4, P<0.05). Conclusion Among the three convolutional neural network models, the DenseNet model has the best predictive effect on whether deep caries are exposed in imaging. The predictive effect of this model is equivalent to the level of senior dentists specializing in dental pulp.

    Combined micro-apical surgery and vital pulp therapy in mandibular second molars with external root resorption caused by impacted teeth
    Song Dongzhe, Luo Yu, Liu Xian, Hu Pei, Huang Dingming
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  225-231.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022427
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    Objective This study aimed to establish a new treatment of the mandibular second molars with external root resorption caused by impacted teeth to preserve the affected teeth and their vital pulps. Methods For mandibular second molars clinically diagnosed as external root resorption caused by impacted teeth, debridement and removal of the root at the resorption site via micro-apical surgery and direct capping of the pulp with bioactive material on the surface of the root amputation via vital pulp therapy were performed immediately after the impacted teeth were extracted. Results The external root resorption of the affected tooth was ceased. It was asymptomatic with intact crown, normal pulp, periapical alveolar bone reconstruction, normal periodontal ligament, continuous bone sclerosis, and no periapical translucency in radiographic examination at the 1-year postoperative follow-up, thus showing good prognosis. Conclusion Simultaneous combination of micro-apical surgery and vital pulp therapy after extraction of impacted teeth could successfully preserve mandibular second molars with ERR caused by impacted teeth and their vital pulps.

    Root canal treatment of type Ⅱ and ⅢA double dens invaginatus in maxillary lateral incisor: a case report
    Li Chengxi, Song Weijian.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  232-236.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022390
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    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of the teeth that is caused by the infolding of enamel organs or the penetration of their proliferations into dental papillae before calcification has occurred. The presence of double dens invaginatus is extremely rare. This paper describes the use of cone beam computed tomography in the evaluation of a maxillary lateral incisor with double dens invaginatus and periapical periodontitis. The tooth was treated through microscopic root canal therapy. The tooth was free of clinical symptoms, and the periradicular lesion narrowed during the follow-up period of 1 year.

    Carcinoma within a lymphoepithelial cyst: a case report
    Jiang Hongjie, Li Mao, Tang Yueyang, Tang Yaling.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  237-242.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022395
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    Malignant transformation arising in benign lymphoepithelial cysts is a complex and rare occurrence, and related research is limited. This study presents a case of the malignant degeneration of lymphoepithelial cyst in parapharyngeal space. Clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis are discussed with literature review to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment management.

    Dental erosion caused by glucocorticoid therapy in a patient with optic neuritis: a case report
    Shang Mengyao, Wei Yuqi, Yu Meijiao, Zhang Jin, Cui Pingping.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2023, 41(2):  243-246.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2023.2022373
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    Dental erosion is characterized by progressively destroyed teeth, which has no relation to bacteria but to chemicals. Some internal factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux induced by bulimia, anorexia, gastrointestinal diseases, or drugs, and external factors, such as diet, drugs, and occupational acid exposure, are considered promotive factors for this disease. This article presents a patient suffering from severe dental erosion in the whole dentition, especially in the maxillary teeth, due to gastroesophageal reflux induced by glucocorticoid therapy for optic neuritis. This article discusses the mechanism between optic neuritis glucocorticoid therapy and dental erosion.