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Table of Content
01 August 2021, Volume 39 Issue 4
  • China experts' consensus on preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatments of malocclusions of children
    Li Xiaobing, Ye Quanfu, He Hong, Lu Haiping, Zhu Min, Jiang Ruoping, Zou Shujuan, Han Xianglong, Zhou Li, Chen Ke, Yuan Xiao, Zhang Junmei, Tan Lijun, Yin Chang, He Zhou, Li Ang, Cheng Bin, Ruan Wenhua, Huang Fang, Liu Juan, Ma Lan, Zou Rui, Yang Fang, Zhang Weibing, Tian Yulou, Jiang Beizhan, Shao Linqin, Huang Yang, Tang Liqin, Gao Li, Zhou Chenchen
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  369-376.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.001
    Abstract ( 2303 )   HTML ( 423 )   PDF(pc) (880KB) ( 4140 )   Save
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    Malocclusion is one of the three most common oral diseases reported by World Health Organization(WHO). In China, its incidence rate is rising. Malocclusion seriously affects the dental and maxillofacial function, facial appearance and growth development of nearly 260 million children in China, and what is more, it affects their physical and mental health development. Malocclusion occurrence is related to genetic and environmental factors. Early treatment of malocclusion can create a good dental and maxillofacial development environment, correct abnormal growth and control the adverse effects of abnormal genetic factors. It can effectively reduce the prevalence of children's malocclusion and enhance their physical and mental health. This is an urgent need from the economic perspective of our society, so it has great practical and social significance. Experts from the project group “standard diagnose and treatment protocols for early orthodontic intervention of malocclusions of children” which initiated by China National Health Institute of Hospital Administration wrote the “China Experts' Consensus on Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontic Treatments of Malocclusions of Children”, which aims to guide and popularize the clinical practice, improve the clinical theory and practice level, and accelerate the disciplinary development of early treatment of children's malocclusion in China. The consensus elaborates the harmfulness of malocclusion and the necessity of early treatment, and brings up the principles and fundamental contents. Based on the law of dental and maxillofacial development, this paper puts forward the guiding suggestions of preventive and interceptive treatments in different stages of dental development ranging from fetus to early permanent dentition. It is a systematic project to promote and standardize the early treatment of malocclusion. Through scientific and comprehensive stratified clinical practice and professional training, the clinical system of early treatment of malocclusion in China will eventually be perfected, so as to comprehensively care for children's dental and maxillofacial health, and improve their oral and physical health in China.

    Tilted implantation technique for edentulous patients
    Fan Zhen, Liu Yue, Wang Zuolin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  377-385.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.002
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    The tilted implantation technique is characterized by placing the implant at an angle of more than 15° and less than 45° from the horizontal plane. This technique can avoid damaging the maxillary sinus, inferior alveolar nerve, nasal base, and other anatomical structures when the height of the upper and lower jaw available bone is insufficient, to maximize the use of available bone and avoid a large range of bone increment. The tilted implantation technique can reduce the trauma of the surgery, increase the possibility of immediate restoration and shorten the treatment cycle, which has been widely used clinically. In this review, the scope of application, design elements, design scheme and complications of the tilted implantation technique for edentulous patients will be described.

    The question about the numerical value and quantitative data transfer of implant prosthodontics—orom experience guidance to digital guidance
    Yu Haiyang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  386-397.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.003
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    The correct implant site design and placement are the basic clinical techniques that must be known for implant restoration. For a long time, most implants have been placed by free hands, and the choice of site is mostly dependent on the accumulation of long-term experience of the surgeon. The selection of implant site guided by this experience analogy logic is often based on the surgeon's level of experience,which often makes it very easy to produce complications related to the implant restoration of the incorrect site. In contrast, a clinical program using digital guidance and real-time measurable verification has emerged based on the restoration-oriented implantation concept, which marks the formation of an accurate, measurable and verifiable whole-process digital implant prototype. Furthermore, from the perspective of surveying, the numerical requirements that digital implant restoration relies on are actually incomplete to the four elements of measurement, which leading to the doubts about its authenticity. This article will question the numbers in implant restoration, and conduct a preliminary demonstration, and propose a new reliable actual measurement and verification method of the correct location and the numerical requirements of the restoration space and a new clinical program that relies on numbers from the perspective of the evolution of digital restoration, guided implantology and actual measurement technology. And this article further discusses the current mainstream implant restoration technology based on experience analogy which cannot effectively support the whole process of digital implant restoration and provides a new logical cognitive basis for the final realization of the entire process of digital implant restoration.

    Role of osteoclast differentiation in the occurrence of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint
    Xiao Mian, Hu Zhihui, Jiang Henghua, Fang Wei, Long Xing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  398-404.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.004
    Abstract ( 211 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF(pc) (5780KB) ( 356 )   Save
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    Objective

    This study aimed to explore the role of osteoclast differentiation in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA).

    Methods

    A mouse TMJOA model was constructed. Micro-CT was used to observe the changes in condylar bone during the development of TMJOA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histological structure changes of the condyle of TMJOA mice. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe the presence of osteoclasts in TMJOA joint tissue. The synovial fluid of patients with TMJ-OA was collected to determine the effect on osteoclast differentiation.

    Results

    Micro-CT revealed that the condyle of the TMJOA group had the most obvious damage in the second and third weeks, and the shape of the condyles also changed in a beak-like manner. HE staining showed that the condyle cartilage and subchondral bone structure of TMJOA mice were disordered in the second week. TRAP tissue staining showed that the number of osteoclasts of the TMJOA group obviously increased in the second week. Results of cell experiments showed that the number of osteoclast differentiation significantly increased after stimulation of synovial fluid from TMJOA patients, and the cell volume increased.

    Conclusion

    TMJOA animal models and TMJOA patient synovial cell experiments could induce osteoclast differentiation, indicating that osteoclast differentiation plays an important role in TMJOA occurrence.

    Cross-talk between CXC chemokine ligand 10-CXC chemokine receptor 3 axis and CC chemokine ligand 17-CC chemokine receptor 4 axis in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus
    Tang Nan, Zhang Yuyao, Cheng Juehua, Zhao Zhibai, Fan Yuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  405-412.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.005
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    Objective

    This study aimed to determine whether a correlation existed between CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10)-CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17)-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP).

    Methods

    Peripheral blood of OLP patients (non-erosive and erosive groups) and healthy controls were collected, and T cells were isolated and purified. T cells were co-cultured with three groups: blank, anti-CXCR3, and anti-CCR4. CXCR3 and CCR4 expression were detected by flow cytometry, and CXCL10 and CCL17 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.

    Results

    The purities of T cells were all >95% in the three groups (P>0.05). Receptor expression showed that CXCR3 and CCR4 in the anti-CXCR3 group was downregulated in OLP compared with the blank group (P>0.05). The level of CCR4 in the anti-CCR4 group was significantly downregulated (P<0.05), and CXCR3 was upregulated (P>0.05). Ligand analysis results showed that CXCL10 in the anti-CXCR3 group was significantly downregulated in OLP compared with the blank group (P<0.05), and CCL17 was also downregulated (P>0.05). CCL17 in the anti-CCR4 group was significantly downregulated (P<0.05), and CXCL10 was upregulated (P>0.05). The trend of receptors and ligands in controls was consistent with OLP, but no significant difference existed between the antagonistic and the blank groups (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Two axes interact with each other in the pathogenesis of OLP and may play different roles in its occurrence and development.

    Effect of piceatannol against malignant melanoma in vivo and in vitro
    Yu Bo, Liu Wei, Hu Minqi, Tang Xiufa, Li Chunjie, Que Lin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  413-418.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.006
    Abstract ( 301 )   HTML ( 36 )   PDF(pc) (3448KB) ( 268 )   Save
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    Objective

    To study the antitumor effect of piceatannol (PIC) on malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Methods

    B16F10 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with gradient concentrations of PIC. Cell viability was detected with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and p-Syk were detected with Western blot; migration ability was detected with wound healing assay; invasion ability was detected with Transwell assay. Syk expression was suppressed through RNA interference for the detection of the possible mechanism of PIC in melanoma. An in vivo study was established by creating B16F10-bearing mice with intraperitoneal injection of PIC.

    Results

    The cell viability of B16F10 decreased with increasing PIC concentration. The results of the Transwell assay showed that invasion ability decreased with increasing PIC concentration, and healing time was prolonged at increased PIC concentration in the wound healing assay. Western blot results showed that PIC mainly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk and inhibited the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF. RNA interference pointed out that blocking the expression of Syk can reveal the same inhibition effect on B16F10 cells as PIC. In vivo study revealed that different concentrations of PIC cangreatly inhibit melanoma progression.

    Conclusion

    PIC might block the progression of malignant melanoma by inhibiting spleen tyrosine kinase.

    Self-assembly and mineralization of full-length human amelogenin and its functional fragments in vitro
    Zhong Xiu, Lai Tingting, Chen Liang, Tian Kun
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  419-424.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.007
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    Objective

    To investigate the dynamic process of the self-assembly behaviors of a full-length human amelogenin (AM) and its functional fragments tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide(LRAP) in vitro and its role in hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal formation.

    Methods

    The full-length human AM and its functional fragments, TRAP and LRAP, were reassembled and purified in vitro. The protein solution of 100 µg‧mL-1, pH=8, was prepared in Tris-HCl and incubated at room temperature for 1-15 min. Their self-assembly behaviors were observed and compared under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The full-length AM was added to artificial saliva and incubated for 3 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used in observing the morphology of the induced new crystals. Then, TARP and LRAP were added. The resulting solution was incubated for 3 days and then observed again.

    Results

    When pH=8, the full-length human AM and TRAP assembly started spontaneously and formed “nanospheres” after 15 min.The nanospheres formed by TRAP existed independently, with a uniform size but without obvious internal structures. The full-length AM was assembled hierarchically, which formed “nanospheres” and further extended in all directions, formed a chain structure, and then aggregated into a net. The self-assembly behavior of LRAP was not obvious. Proteins mostly existed in the form of monomers without “nanosphere” formation. Only few oligomers were observed. The full-length AM was induced independently for 3 days to form rod-shaped HA crystals. TRAP and LRAP proteins were added, after 3 days the crystal elongation was obvious in the c axis, but the growth in plane A and plane B was poor.

    Conclusion

    The self-assembly and mineralization behaviors of full-length human AM, TRAP, and LRAP were consistent with the directional growth mechanism of HA crystals in vivo, providing a theoretical basis for the role of the fragments in the growth and maturation of HA crystals.

    circ_0005379 inhibits the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the miR-17-5p/acyl-CoA oxidase 1 axis
    Zhou Haixia, Wang Luyao, Chen Shuai, Wang Dandan, Fang Zheng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  425-433.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.008
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    Objective

    To investigate the effects of circ_0005379 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and its mechanism.

    Methods

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression levels of circ_0005379 and miR-17-5p in OSCC tissues and SCC15 cell lines. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1). The circ_0005379 overexpression vector was transfected into SCC15 cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium blue staining, flow cytometry, Transwell, and Western blot were used to detect the effects of circ_0005379 overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of SCC15 cells and the expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and Snail proteins. Dual luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation were used to examine the regulation of circ_0005379, miR-17-5p, miR-17-5p, and ACOX1 in SCC15 cells. A nude mouse xenograft model of SCC15 cells stably overexpressing circ_0005379 was established, and the effect of circ_0005379 overexpression on the growth of xenografts in nude mice was observed.

    Results

    Compared with adjacent cancer tissues, the expression levels of circ_0005379 and ACOX1 proteins in OSCC tissues were decreased (P<0.05), and the expression level of miR-17-5p was increased (P<0.05). Compared with HOK-16A cells, the expression levels of circ_0005379 and ACOX1 proteins in SCC15 cell lines were decreased (P<0.05), and the expression level of miR-17-5p was increased (P<0.05). After overexpressing circ_0005379, the activity and number of migrating and invading SCC15 cells and the expression levels of β-catenin and Snail proteins were decreased (P<0.05); however, the apoptosis rate and expression level of E-cadherin protein were increased (P<0.05). In SCC15 cells, circ_0005379 targeted the negative regulation of miR-17-5p expression, and miR-17-5p targeted the negative regulation of ACOX1 expression. Overexpressing miR-17-5p or silencing ACOX1 could reverse the effects of circ_0005379 overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of OSCC cell lines. The tumor volume and weight of nude mice overexpressing circ_0005379 were decreased (P<0.05), the expression levels of circ_0005379 and ACOX1 protein in tumor tissues were increased (P<0.05), and the expression level of miR-17-5p was decreased (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    circ_0005379 may inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells by downregulating the expression of miR-17-5p and upregulating ACOX1, which promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. circ_0005379 may be a potential target for OSCC treatment.

    Expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, P53, and P16 in patients with oral leukoplakia and leukoplakia cancerization with spicy diet in Chengdu
    Wan Zixin, Zheng Zhijian, Huang Meichang, Chen Yu, Yao Lihong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  434-440.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.009
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    Objective

    To investigate the expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, P53, and P16 in patients with oral leukoplakia (OLK) and OLK cancerization who have aspicy diet in Chengdu.

    Methods

    Thirtypatients with OLK andspicy diet and 15 patients with OLK without spicy diet in Chengdu were divided into three groups: hyperplastic OLK (OLK-), OLK with mild to moderate dysplasia (OLK+), and severe dysplastic  OLK or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) transforming from OLK (OLK++/OSCC). The expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, P53, and P16 were detected by immunohistochemistry and statistically analyzed.

    Results

    The expression of Ki-67 and P53 in patients with or without spicy diet in the OLK+and OLK++/OSCC groups were stronger than that of the OLK- group (P<0.05). The OLK++/OSCC group showed a higher expression of Cyclin D1 and lower expression of P16 than the OLK- group (P<0.05). The expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, P53, and P16 in patients with spicy diet and without spicy diet had no substantial difference. The expression of Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 showed a positive correlation (r=0.439, P=0.015).

    Conclusion

    Spicy diet did not have an influence on the expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, P53, and P16 in patients with OLK and OSCC. The expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, and P53 increased with the development of OLK, whereas P16 showed opposite expression trend.

    Clinical study of periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling in the treatment of residual pocket
    Xu Yujuan, Zhao Lei, Wu Yafei, Duan Dingyu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  441-446.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.010
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    Objective

    To compare the treatment effects of periodontal endoscope-assisted and traditional subgingival scaling on residual pockets.

    Methods

    A total of 13 patients with periodontitis from Dept. of Periodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University were recruited. After 4-6 weeks of initial treatment, the residual pockets with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and attachment loss (AL) of ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing were examined with traditional (control group) and periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling (endoscopy group) in a randomly controlled split-mouth design. At baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment, plaque index (PLI), PD, AL, and bleeding index (BI) were measured. Differences in these clinical parameters within and between groups and patient-reported outcomes were compared.

    Results

    A total of the 694 sites of 251 teeth were included in this trial. Both groups showed significant improvement in each periodontal parameters 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment (P<0.001). For sites in a single-rooted tooth, sites with PD≥5 mm, and sites without vertical alveolar bone resorption and furcation involvement, the PD in endoscopy group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling resulted in better effects than traditional subgingival scaling when the residual pockets were in a single-rooted tooth, with a PD of ≥5 mm but without vertical alveolar bone resorption and furcation involvement.

    Finite element analysis of the effects of periodontal tissue temperature by continuous wave technique
    Zhang Jianguo, Liu Jun, Cen Rong, Hu Fengling
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  447-452.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.011
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    Objective

    The safety of root canal filling with 200 °C hot gutta-percha was investigated to study the effect of continuous wave technique combined with high-temperature injectable gutta-percha condensation technique on the surface temperature of periodontal tissue.

    Methods

    CT technique and Mimics, Geomagic, and Solidworks software were utilized to build the entity models of alveolar bone, dentin and root canal, periodontal ligament, and blood flow, respectively, which were then assembled in Solidworks into a finite element model of tooth with blood flow. By utilizing ABAQUS collaborative simulation platform, fluid-structure coupling was analyzed on the whole process of root canal filling. Consequently, the surface temperature of the periodontal tissue was obtained.

    Results

    In the absence of blood flow, the temperature of the periodontal ligament surface reached 50.048 ℃ during root canal filling with 200 ℃ gutta-percha. Considering blood flow, the temperature of periodontal ligament surface was 39.570 ℃.

    Conclusion

    The temperature of the periodontal ligament surface increased when the continuous wave root canal was filled with 200 ℃ gutta-percha, and the periodontal tissue was not damaged.

    Use of two kinds of antioxidants to restore the bond strength of bleached enamel
    Xu Yingxin, Li Wen, Su Min
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  453-457.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.012
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    Objective

    This work aimed to evaluate the ability of two kinds of antioxidants, namely, grape-seed extract and sodium ascorbate, in restoring bond strength at the resin-enamel interface after bleaching.

    Methods

    Ten groups of samples with 15 teeth per group were prepared for shear-bond-strength test at the resin-enamel interface after bleaching. The groups were as follows: control; no antioxidant; 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 15% grape-seed extract; and 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 15% sodium ascorbate. The peak values of shear bond strength when resin was debonded from teeth and the failure modes under a microscope were recorded. Ten other groups of teeth with two teeth per group were prepared and treated in a similar approach before resin bonding. The samples were cut vertically to the bonding interface. The structures of the bonding interface were compared by scanning electron microscopy.

    Results

    No statistically significant difference in shear bond strength was found among the no-antioxidant, 2.5% grape-seed extract, and 2.5%, 5%, or 10% sodium ascorbate groups (P>0.05), which were statistically significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Evidence of marginal gap was observed at the resin-enamel interface, and resin tags in enamel were short, poorly defined, and fragmented. No statistically significant difference in shear bond strength was found among 5%, 10%, or 15% grape-seed extract, 15% sodium ascorbate, and control groups (P>0.05). No evidence of discontinuity was found at the adhesion interface, and resin tags in enamel were long, well defined, and structurally intact. Failure in the adhesive joint was the major debond mode in all experimental groups.

    Conclusion

    Immediately after bleaching, the bond strength of dental enamel significantly decreased. Bond strength can be restored by 5% grape-seed extract or 15% sodium ascorbate in 5 min.

    A retrospective study of endodontic microsurgery about 302 patients
    Chen Yiyan, Pradan Siras Prasad, Yang Jinbo
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  458-463.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.013
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    Objective

    To investigate the outcome of endodontic microsurgery and analyze the potential prognostic factors, and to evaluate the value of surgical classification by Kim and Kratchman.

    Methods

    Collecting clinical examination and radiographical examination of endodontic microsurgery cases (which were followed up at least 1 year), which were classified according to Kim and Kratchman, and we analyzed the outcome of endodontic microsurgery and its potential prognostic factors.

    Results

    302 patients (400 teeth) who received endodontic microsurgery were included. The one year success rate of endodontic microsurgery was 94.25%. Different classification had significant influences on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery (P<0.05), and the success rate of class B and C were better than those of class D, E, and F. The position of teeth had significant influences on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery (P<0.05). The success rate of maxillary teeth was higher than that of mandibular teeth. The success rate of anterior teeth was higher than that of posterior teeth (P<0.05). The quality of root end filling and first or second surgery had no effect on the outcome (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Endodontic microsurgery is an effective treatment method for saving affected teeth, and it can get a good result. Tooth position and classification are the potential prognostic factors. The surgical classification of Kim and Kratchman can help to predict the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.

    Short-term efficacy of superficial X-ray treatment for infantile maxillofacial hemangioma
    Tang Lina, Liu Gang, Yang Chao, Sha Xiaowei, Wang Siyu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  464-468.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.014
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    Objective

    This study aimed to explore the short-term clinical efficacy and factors influencing low-dose superficial X-ray for treating infantile maxillofacial hemangioma.

    Methods

    Retrospective analysis was conducted on 161 cases of infants with maxillofacial hemangioma treated with superficial X-ray in the Laser Center of Dermatology Department of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2017. Clinical efficacy was analyzed by comparing the photos before and after treatment. Patients were further divided into groups according to different genders, age at the start of treatment, preterm birth or low birth weight, hemangioma site, longest diameter of hemangioma, and type of hemangioma to analyze whether differences existed in clinical efficacy and therapeutic dose between different groups.

    Results

    Twelve months after the end of treatment, the overall cure rate was 93.8%, and the significant efficiency was 97.5%. The clinical efficacy was related to the age of children at the beginning of treatment and the type of hemangioma (P<0.05). The clinical efficacy of children aged less than or equal to 12 months and superficial hemangioma group was better than that of children aged more than 12 months and deep subtype or mixed hemangioma group, respectively. Therapeutic doses associa-ted with hemangioma treatment with diameter, category, age (P<0.05), diameter greater than or equal to 4 cm hemangioma group, the mixed type or deep in the group, the children older than 12 months hemangioma group, respectively, the dia-meter is less than 4 cm hemangioma, superficial hemangioma group and age less than or equal to 12 months hemangioma total treatment group exposure dose is greater.

    Conclusion

    Low-dose superficial X-ray is safe and effective for the treatment of infantile maxillofacial hemangioma. Age and type of hemangioma at the time of treatment are the factors influencing therapeutic dose and clinical efficacy.

    Regulation effect of lipopolysaccharide on the alternative splicing and function of sweet taste receptor T1R2
    Zhu Jianhui, Zheng Xin, Peng Xian, Xu Xin, Margolskee Robert, Zhou Xuedong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  469-474.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.015
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    Objective

    To identify the alternative splicing isoform of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2, and investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) local injection on T1R2 alternative splicing and the function of sweet taste receptor as one of the bacterial virulence factors.

    Methods

    After mouse taste bud tissue isolation was conducted, RNA extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the splicing isoform of T1R2. Heterologous expression experiments in vitro were utilized to detect how the T1R2 isoform regulated the function of sweet taste receptors. The effect of local LPS injection on the expression of the T1R2 isoform was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.

    Results

    T1R2 splicing isoform T1R2_Δe3p formed sweet taste receptors with T1R3, which could not be activated by sweet taste stimuli and significantly downregulated the function of canonical T1R2/T1R3. Local LPS injection significantly increased the expression ratio of T1R2_Δe3p in mouse taste buds.

    Conclusion

    LPS stimulation affects the alternative splicing of mouse sweet taste receptor T1R2 and significantly upregulates the expression of non-functional isoform T1R2_Δe3p, suggesting that T1R2 alternative splicing regulation may be one of the mechanisms by which microbial infection affects host taste perception.

    Distribution of bacteria infected by metagenomic sequencing technology in maxillofacial space
    Chen Yiheng, Zheng Hongyu, Li Zixuan, Wu Yongchao, Niu Zhixing, Peng Yanhui, Zhao Junfang, Sun Qiang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  475-481.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.016
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    Objective

    This study aimed to compare and analyze the consistency and difference between metageno-mic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and conventional bacterial culture in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in maxillofacial space infection, as well as to provide a new detection method for the early clinical identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection.

    Methods

    The clinical data of 16 patients with oral and maxillofacial space infections in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from March 2020 to June 2020 were collected. mNGS and conventional bacterial culture methods were used to detect pus. We then analyzed and compared the test results of the two methods, including the test cycle, positive detection rate, anaerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobes and aerobic bacteria detection rates, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, relative species abundance, and resistance genes.

    Results

    The average inspection period of mNGS was (18.81±3.73) h, and the average inspection period of bacterial culture was (83.25±11.64) h, the former was shorter than the latter (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of mNGS was 100% (16/16), and the positive detection rate of conventional bacterial culture was 31.25% (5/16), the former was higher than the latter (P<0.05). The detection rate of mNGS anaerobic bacteria was 93.75% (15/16), the detection rate of bacterial culture anaerobes was 0 (0/16), the former was higher than the latter (P<0.05). Using mNGS, the detection rate of facultative anaerobes in bacterial culture was 75.00% (12/16), and the detection rate of facultative anaerobes in bacterial culture was 25.00% (4/16), the former was higher than the latter (P<0.05). The detection rate of aerobic bacteria in bacterial culture was 12.50% (1/16), the former was higher than the latter (P>0.05). mNGS detected 15 kinds of pathogenic bacteria, among which 3 were Gram positive, 12 were Gram negative, 49 were non-pathogenic, 16 were Gram positive, and 32 were Gram negative, 1 was fungus.

    Conclusion

    Compared with conventional bacterial culture, mNGS has the characteristics of short test time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy. Thus, it is a new detection method for the early identification of pathogenic bacteria in maxillofacial space infection and is beneficial to the early clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

    Guided bone regeneration-assisted orthodontic treatment for closing the space of missing central incisors
    Chen Luyi, Huang Min, Wu Jiaqi, Luo Jun
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  482-488.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.017
    Abstract ( 196 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF(pc) (6926KB) ( 416 )   Save
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    Long-term missing teeth can lead to alveolar bone loss in the edentulous area. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a bone augmentation method. It is widely used in clinical practice and broadens the indications of orthodontic treatment to a certain extent. This article reports a case of an adult patient with edentulous space in the maxillary central incisor, which was successfully closed through orthodontic treatment combined with GBR. This study will provide a re-ference for future clinical work.

    Severe hypothyroidism after orthognathic surgery: a case report
    Jiang Linlin, Luo Lin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2021, 39(4):  489-491.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.018
    Abstract ( 200 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (516KB) ( 116 )   Save
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    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease with reduced systemic metabolism, but the initial diagnosis is rare in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, it is easy to be misdiagnosed and missed diagnosis which results in serious consequences. This paper presents a case of severe hypothyroidism which was characterized by airway obstruction, facial swelling, unexplained anaemia and bipedal edema after orthognathic surgery. With review of relevant literatures, this article discusses the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of hypothyroidism.