Objective To provide basic data for the prevention of oral diseases in minorities by investigating the oral health status and behavior related to oral health knowledge of individuals aged 35 to 44 years in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur. Methods The caries and periodontal health of 445 individuals aged 35 to 44 years were examined according to the method and criterion prescribed by the World Health Organization and the Third National Oral Health Epidemiologic Investigation. A questionnaire survey on related oral health knowledge and behavior was conducted. Results The crown caries prevalence rate in Dongxiang, Baoan, and Yugur were 48.28%, 79.47%, and 67.11%, respectively; the root caries prevalence rates were 38.62%, 69.54%, and 42.95%, respectively. The rates of gum bleeding in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur were 86.90%, 90.07%, and 65.77%, respectively. The rates of dental calculus in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur were 99.31%, 100.00%, 99.33%, respectively, and the rates of periodontal bags were 68.97%, 67.55%, and 43.62%, respectively. Only 69.84% of the respon-dents brush their teeth every day; 94.90% of the respondents do not floss. Only 20.19% of the respondents contact a doctor for a toothache, and 42.23% of the respondents have never seen a dentist. Conclusion Caries morbidity is high among the respondents aged 35 to 44 years from Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur. The periodontal health status and oral hygiene of the respondents are poor, and behavior related to oral health knowledge is insufficient. Thus, more attention must be provided to the prevention and control of caries and periodontal diseases among middle-aged people in the area.