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Table of Content
01 June 2018, Volume 36 Issue 3
  • The modified lip-tooth-ridge classification: a guide for edentulous maxillary arches
    Liu Jianzhang.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  233-239.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.001
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    According to the width and height of the maxillary alveolar ridge, the maxillary edentulous jaws can be divided into three categories by using modified lip-tooth-ridge (MLTR) classification. Class Ⅰ is characterized by sufficient bone available for implants in the vertical and horizontal aspects and is suitable for fixed implant-supported prostheses. Class Ⅱ is characterized by sufficient bone amount available for implants in a horizontal aspect but insufficient for lip support and is suitable for a fixed detachable implant-supported prosthesis. Class Ⅲ is characterized by inadequate amount of bone for implants (with vertical or horizontal components) and is suitable for the use of zygomatic implants or traditional complete denture. Patients belonging to Class Ⅰ can be further classified into two sub-categories according to the height of the alveolar ridge. The first subclass is characterized by minimal bone deficiency and is suitable for a conventional implant-supported “crown and bridge” prosthesis. The second subclass is characterized by a larger vertical deficiency than that of the first subclass and is suitable for implant-supported hybrid prosthesis. The MLTR classification system can help the dentist to determine whether the patient is suitable for implanting dentures and whether fixed denture or removable denture is appropriate for the patient, select indications, reduce complications, and achieve long-term results.
    Preparation of multifunctional nanoparticles targeting tongue cancer and in vitro study
    Wei Ren, Lihua Qiu, Zhi Gao, Pan Li, Xin Zhao, Chengchen Hu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  240-246.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.002
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    Objective This study aims to prepare docetaxel (DOC)-loaded multifunctional nanoparticles containing indo-cyanine green (ICG) and perfluorohexane (PFH) as targeted drug delivery system, which is supplemented with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and characterize their properties. Methods Multifunctional nanoparticles were prepared by using the double emulsion method. SDF-1 was covalently conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles through thioe-ther bonding. Their particle size, distribution, and surface potential were determined with the Malvern measuring in-strument. The conjugation of SDF-1 was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope. Encapsulation efficiency (ELC), drug loading capacity (DLC), and release regularity of the nanoparticles were determined by high-performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC). In vitro photothermal property was recorded by a thermal imager. The in vitro imaging capacity was observed by a photoacoustic instrument and an ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. Targeting capability was assessed by flow cytometry. The cell activity on SCC-15 cells was checked by CCK-8 method. Results The targeted multifunctional nano-particles showed regularly sphericity. The diameter was (502.88±17.92) nm. The zeta potential was (-11.5±3.15) mV. ELC was 54.12%±1.74%. DLC was 1.08 mg·mL-1. In vitro drug release was initially fast and subsequently slow. The photothermal characteristics were related to the concentration; the higher the concentration, the higher the temperature. Nanoparticles could detect significant photoacoustic and ultrasound signals. The in vitro targeting rate was 89.99%. No significant differences of cell viability in the SINPs groups were observed at each concentration (P>0.05). The inhibition effect of DOC-SINPs was stronger than that of SINPs whether or not in the presence of laser irradiation among the groups of 150 and 200 μg·mL-1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Multifunctional nanoparticles for diagnosis and treatment were successfully prepared and displayed dual-mode ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging and antitumor effects of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy.

    An in vitro study of the angiogenic effects of concentrate growth factor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Jun Huan, Lei Dou, Qifang Yan, Deqin Yang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  247-251.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.003
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    Objective This study aimed to explore the effects of concentrate growth factor extracts (CGFe) on human umbi-lical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Methods Concentrate growth factor (CGF) were prepared from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, followed by CGFe. Four groups were designed based on cell culture medium, as follows: 2%CGFe, 5%CGFe, 10%CGFe, and control. The proliferation activity of HUVECs was detected by cell cycle and CCK-8 assays. The migration of HUVECs was detected by scratch assay. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were examined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results Results of CCK-8 and cell cycle assays showed that CGFe promoted the proli-feration capability of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner, and the data had statistical significance among four groups (P<0.05). The cell migration assay indicated that CGF accelerated wound closure in a dose-dependent manner after 12 h of culture (P<0.05). The results of qRT-PCR showed that CGF upregulated the expression levels of VEGF, CXCR4, and PDGF in HUVECs. Conclusion CGFe can promote the proliferation, migration, and angiogenic differentiation of HUVECs. Thus, CGF might be an appropriate cure for dental pulp revascularization.

    Effects of nano-zirconium hydroxide coating on resin bonding of 10-methacryloxy decyldihydrogen phosphate-conditioned zirconia
    Bingzhuo Chen, Lu Yang, Ying Chen, Huaiqin Zhang, Haifeng Xie, Feng He
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  252-256.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.004
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    Objective This study evaluated the influence of alkaline coating of nano-zirconium hydroxide on resin bonding of 10-methacryloxy decyldihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-conditioned zirconia. Methods A total of 140 yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) plates were prepared and sandblasted with alumina particles, and then subjected to different surface treatment. Resin bonding specimens were prepared with a MDP-free resin cement and tested for shear bond strength (SBS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the formation of chemical bond on the surface of Y-TZP treated successively with nano-zirconium hydroxide coating and MDP containing primer. Results The two alkaline coatings increased the 24 h SBS compared to control groups, and groups using nano-zirconium hydroxide coating yielded higher SBS. After thermocycling, no statistical difference was observed between groups, but SBS decreased significantly compared to the 24 h SBS (P<0.05). XPS analysis detected -OH bond on the surface of Y-TZP treated with nano-zirconium hydro-xide coating, and -P-O-Zr bond was detected on the surface of Y-TZP treated with nano-zirconium hydroxide coating and MDP-containing primer. Conclusion Alkaline coatings improved the bonding of resin to zirconia conditioned with MDP-containing primers.

    Expression and significance of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 and β-catenin in gingival tissue of patients with chronic periodontitis
    Yutan Chi, Chunjiao Xu, Xiaojuan Sun, Dongmei Li, Hongfeng Wang, Miaomiao Wang, Xiufang He
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  257-261.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.005
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression and correlation of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) and β-catenin in gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). The role of the classical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of periodontitis was also explored. Methods Twenty-eight patients with CP (CP group) were enrolled in this study. Among them, 16 cases were moderate CP, and 12 demonstrated severe CP. Twelve healthy cases comprised the controls (normal group). Gingival tissue was collected, and the probing depth, bleeding index, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. The expression levels of SFRP1 and β-catenin were detected by immunohistochemistry, and staining intensity was evaluated by double scoring method. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results The staining strength scores of SFRP1 and β-catenin were 2.16±0.65 and 1.12±0.51 in the normal group, 3.57±0.45 and 2.36±0.49 in the CP group, 3.61±0.40 and 2.30±0.44 in the moderate CP group, and 3.52±0.52 and 2.45±0.55 in the severe CP group, respectively. The expression of SFRP1 and β-catenin in the CP group was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01). A significant difference was noted between the normal group and the moderate and severe CP groups (P<0.01) but none between the moderate and severe CP groups (P>0.05). A positive correlation was found between the expression of SFRP1 and β-catenin (r=0.657, P<0.01). The expression levels of β-catenin and SFRP1 were related to periodontal indexes. The correlation between the expression of SFRP1 and probing depth was most significant (r=0.723, P<0.01), as well as that between β-catenin and bleeding index (r=0.697, P<0.01). Conclusion Patients with CP exhibit elevated expression of SFRP1 and β-catenin in gingival tissues, and this event is related to the degree of periodontal destruction. Abnormal expression of SFRP1 and β-catenin may promote the development of periodontitis.

    Retrospective study of temporomandibular joint dislocation by surgical treatment
    Yongming Qiao, Yiming Liu, Rui Li, Jianmin Gong, Wei He
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  262-266.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.006
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    Objective This study aimed to retrospectively analyze temporomandibular joint dislocation by surgical treat-ment and evaluate the treatment effect. Methods From May 2012 to April 2016, a total of 17 cases of temporomandibular joint dislocation were surgically treated, including 8 cases of irreducible dislocation (ID) and 9 cases of recurrent dislocation (RD). Synovial injection of sclerosing agent by arthroscope was performed in 5 cases, 9 sides; augmentation of the articular eminence by titanium plate implantation was performed in 7 cases, 12 sides; iliac bone transplantation was performed in 1 case, 1 side; Medpore implantation was performed in 3 cases, 6 sides; and eminectomy and capsular tightening were performed in 1 case, 2 sides. Follow-up was conducted 1-5 years after the operation, and the success rate statistics was obtained. Results The cure rate of synovial injection of sclerosing agent by arthroscope was 77.8% (7/9), and the effective rate was 100%. The cure rate of titanium plate implantation was 75% (9/12), and the effective rate was 100%. The cure rates of augmentation of the articular eminence by Medpore implantation (6/6), iliac bone graft (1/1), and eminectomy (2/2) were 100%. Conclusion The surgical method of temporomandibular joint dislocation was selected according to the state of the patients. The postope-rative recurrent patients were advised to undergo augmentation of the articular eminence by Medpore implantation, which offered a reduced chance of recurrence and relatively less injury, as well as a simple operative method.

    Confirmatory factor analysis of the shortened dentine hypersensitivity experience questionnaire
    Xiaoling Li, Jinhua Wang, Songlin He
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  267-270.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.007
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    Objective This review aims to identify the dimensional structure of the shortened dentine hypersensitivity experience questionnaire (DHEQ-15) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods The Chinese language version of DHEQ-15 was applied to 210 patients with dentine hypersensitivity aged 18-70 years old. The three-dimensional construct was confirmed by CFA.Results All the questionnaires were fully completed. The item “Because of the sensations, I take longer to finish a meal than others” was the most frequently reported by the parents. The modified three-factor model is suitable for the data. The chi-square fit statistics/degree of freedom was 2.213, the goodness-of-fit index was 0.905, the adjusted goodness-of-fit index was 0.872, the normed fit index was 0.845, the incremental fit index was 0.962, the Tucker-Lewis index was 0.969, the comparative fit index was 0.977, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.068. Conclusion Our findings generally support the three-dimensional construct of the DHEQ-15. Thus, DHEQ-15 can be used as a valid instrument in patients with dentine hypersensitivity in China.

    Influencing factors on the quality of life and medical coping style of patients with oral cancer
    Shuaihua Qin, Xinming Li, Wenlu Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  271-276.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.008
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    Objective To evaluate the influencing factors on the postoperative quality of life and to analyze the coping styles of patients with oral cancer. Methods A total of 131 oral cancer cases confirmed through diagnostic criteria were investigated to analyze the influencing factors on the quality of life (QOL) and the relationship between coping style and QOL of these patients by using the fourth edition of the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UWQOL) and medical coping modes questionnaires (MCMQ), respectively. Results Among the 131 questionnaires collected, only 126 were valid with a recovery rate of 96.18% (126/131). Single factor analysis showed that age, marital status, educational level, other systemic diseases, personal income level, tooth loss, operation times, adjuvant radiotherapy, cancer staging, cervical lymph node dissection, recurrence, and jaw resection yielded different UWQOL scale scores (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that the loss of teeth, cancer staging, recurrence, and jaw resection yielded statistically significant differences in the total score of UWQOL (P<0.05). Among the coping styles, the average scores of “confrontation”, “avoidance”, and “yielding” were 17.54±4.97, 17.79±2.19, and 12.97±5.70, respectively. Compared with the norm, the difference was statistically signifi-cant (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that “confronta-tion” and “avoidance” were positively correlated, whereas “yielding” was negatively correlated to QOL (P<0.05). Conclusion Age, marital status, educational level, other systemic diseases, personal income level, tooth loss, operation times, adjuvant radiotherapy, cancer staging, cervical lymph node dissection, recurrence, and jaw resection have different effects on the quality of QOL. Tooth loss, cancer staging, recurrence, and jaw resection are the main causative factors affecting the patients’ perceived QOL. Personalized treatment and nursing care should be strengthened to improve the coping style and quality of life of patients.

    Preliminary study on the clinical application of temporary treatment denture in difficult edentulous cases before com-plete denture restoration
    Wenqiao Zhou, Die Liu, Tao Chen, Yan Peng, Tingting Zhang, Changhong Hu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  277-281.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.009
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    Objective To explore the clinical effects of treatment denture on difficult edentulous cases before complete denture restoration. Methods Thirty-six patients who experienced unsuccessful restoration of conventional complete dentures were included in this study. Treatment dentures were fabricated to solve issues such as abnormal occlusion, tissue surface problems, and neuromuscular dysfunction of the stomatognathic system caused by systemic diseases. The final complete dentures were fabricated by duplicating the treatment dentures. Jaw relation index, stability, and retention were evaluated at different stages. Oral health-related quality of life was measured using the Chinese version of Oral Health Impact Profile for edentulous subjects (OHIP-EDENT).Results Among the 36 patients, 33 successfully completed the final restoration with positive effects. Conclusion Treatment denture is an effective pre-restorative option that can be used to correct abnormal occlusion, improve tissue surface problems, and aid in neuromuscular rehabilitation training. Treatment dentures contribute to the successful restoration of the final complete dentures and is worthy of clinical applications.

    CT imaging features of diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor of temporomandibular joint
    Weiyu Mao, Muqing Liu, Kaiyuan Fu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  282-286.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.010
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the characteristic features of CT images of diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TSGCT) from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to understand CT imaging diagnosis of the disease. Methods CT images and clinical information from 10 patients with D-TSGCT of TMJ were recruited for retrospective analysis from March 2013 to March 2017 in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology. All cases were treated by surgery and confirmed by pathology. Results CT scan demonstrated hyperdense soft-tissue masses and various kinds of calcification in all of the 10 subjects. Contrast-enhanced scan exhibited obvious enhancement in six patients. Bone destruction of the mandibular condyles and skull base was found in seven and six subjects, respectively. Conclusion CT appearance of D-TSGCT of the TMJ is characterized by hyperdense soft tissue with calcification, further enhancement in contrast-enhanced scan, and bone destruction in the mandibular condyles and skull base in some cases.

    Healing of the periimplant mucosal tissue injury after placing retraction cord subgingivally in beagle dogs
    Xu Gao, Mei Liu, Cuiling Liu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  287-290.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.011
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    Objective This work aims to observe the healing of periimplant mucosal tissue injury in beagle dogs after subgingival retraction cord placement by examining the gingival index (GI), quantity of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and the proinflammatory cytokine in the GCF. Methods In eight beagle dogs, the fourth mandibular premolars on the left side were extracted (n=8); after two months of healing, bone-level implants were installed. A plaque control regimen was performed throughout the duration of the experiment. After three months, retraction cords were placed subgingivally for 5 min before the cement-retained implant-supported crowns were cemented. GI, GCF quantity, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in GCF were assessed before application and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 after application. Results GI, quantity of GCF, and TNF-α were significantly increased on days 1, 3, and 7 compared with those at the baseline and on days 14, 28, and 56 (P<0.05), and no statistically significant differences were observed among those on days 14, 28, and 56 and the baseline (P>0.05). Conclusion Under the circumstances of good oral hygiene, acute injury caused by placing retraction cord subgin-givally in periimplant mucosal tissue of bone-level implant is reversible. GI, the quantity of GCF, and TNF-α on day 14 return to the baseline levels.

    In vivo study of 3D printed porous tantalum implant on osseointegration
    Kexin Su, Ping Ji, Han Wang, Linlin Li, Leizhen Su, Chao Wang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  291-295.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.012
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    Objective This work aims to investigate the effect of porous tantalum and porous titanium on osseointegration. Methods Two kinds of porous materials with same microporous parameters, namely, porous tantalum and porous titanium, were fabricated by computer-aided design (CAD) modeling and 3D printing technology. A defect model was established in 24 New Zealand white rabbits in the bilateral femoral lateral malleolus at the left and right side of each animal. Then, animals were randomly divided into two groups, and bone defects were repaired by porous tantalum and porous titanium (experimental and control groups, respectively). Animals were sacrificed at two, four, and eight weeks after implantation. Gross observation and methylene blue-acid fuchsin staining were used to observe osseointegration of the implant and bone interface, and the osseointegration strength of implant bone interface was tested by push-out test. Results At two, four, and eight weeks after operation, the new bone tissue in the two groups increased gradually, and new bone trabecula appeared and grew into the pores of the materials. No significant difference (P>0.05) in osteo-genesis and the strength of implant bone tissue interface between the two groups was observed. Conclusion 3D printed porous tantalum implants, which exhibit comparable osseointegration capabilities to porous titanium implants, can form an early biological combination with bone tissue.

    Relationship between initial archwire materials and pain at the initial stage of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and network Meta-analysis
    Chang Liu, Yan Wang, Weilin Pan, Changhao Yu, Jingyuan Huang, Chengge Hua
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  296-300.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.013
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    Objective This review aims to assess the relationship between initial archwire materials and pain at the initial stage of orthodontic treatment. Methods On October 1, 2017, seven databases were searched electronically for studies oninitial archwire materials and pain at the initial stage of orthodontic treatment. Quality assessment was performed with bias risk assessment tools suggested by Cochrane’s handbook. Data extraction of included studies was also carried out. Network Meta-analysis was conducted using R 3.4.2 (with JAGS 4.3.0), GeMTC 0.14.3, and STATA 11.0. Results Five studies with 330 participants were included, comparing four different materials: multi-stranded stainless steel, conventional nickel-titanium, super-elastic nickel-titanium, and thermal heat-activated nickel-titanium. Two studies were at low risk of bias, one was at high risk of bias, and the remaining two were at unclear risk of bias. Network Meta-analysis results showed no statistical differences of pain among the four initial archwire materials at day 1 and day 7. However, the most painless material was most likely to be thermal heat-activated nickel-titanium on rank probability. Conclusion On statistical probability, thermal heat-activated nickel-titanium initial arch wires is most likely to cause the least pain at the initial stage of orthodontic treatment, compared with other materials.

    Effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate and potassium nitrate on dentin hypersensitivity: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
    Yuan Liu, Long Wu, Fanqi Meng, Xinshan Hou, Jin Zhao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  301-307.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.014
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    Objective This systematic review and Meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy of calcium sodium phos-phosilicate (CSPS) and potassium nitrate as desensitizing agents for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods A thorough search in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Chinese WanFang Data, CBM, and CNKI were conducted for studies published up to June 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the treatment of DH with CSPS and potassium nitrate toothpaste were included. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently, and Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results Eight RCTs involving 411 patients were included. Experimental group comprised 203 and control group had 208 patients. The Meta-analysis indicated the superior effect of CSPS dentifrice on air blast sensitivity at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of follow-up [SMD=-1.85, 95%CI (-2.89,-0.81), P=0.000 5, I2=93%], [SMD=-1.61, 95%CI (-1.96, -1.26), P<0.000 01, I2=49%], [SMD=-3.79, 95%CI (-7.18, -0.40), P=0.03, I2=98%], and [SMD=-2.13, 95%CI (-2.69, -1.58), P<0.000 01] , respectively. No significant effects were seen at 12 weeks [SMD=-0.63, 95%CI (-1.47, 0.20), P=0.14, I2=71%]. CSPS dentifrice showed a better desensitizing effect at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks of follow-up on cold water sensitivity [SMD=-1.07, 95%CI (-1.48, -0.66), P<0.000 01, I2=69%], [SMD=-1.29, 95%CI (-1.81, -0.76), P<0.000 01, I2=64%], [SMD=-1.20, 95%CI (-1.57, -0.83), P<0.000 01, I2=86%], [SMD=-1.30, 95%CI (-2.51, -0.08), P=0.04, I2=82%], and [SMD=-0.79, 95%CI (-1.27, -0.31), P=0.001], respectively. No significant effects at 1 week of follow-up [SMD=0.00, 95%CI (-0.62, 0.62), P=1]. The favorable effect of CSPS dentifrice on tactile sensitivity was more obvious than the control group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks of follow-up [SMD=-1.31, 95%CI (-2.00, -0.62), P=0.000 2, I2=67%], [SMD=-1.37, 95%CI (-1.74, -0.99), P<0.000 01, I2=23%], and [SMD=-1.33, 95%CI (-1.82,-0.84), P<0.000 01], respectively. No significant effects at 1 week of follow-up [SMD=-0.32, 95%CI (-0.94, 0.31), P=0.32] were observed. Conclusion Current evidence indicated that CSPS was more effective than potassium nitrate at reducing DH. The evidence generated by this review was based on a small number of individuals. High-quality and large sample size as well as ideally-designed clinical trials are required in the future before definitive recommendations can be made.

    Prevalence survey of immature permanent tooth trauma about the clinical visiting and prognosis in Xi’an schoolchildren
    Xiaomin Wang, Xuelong Su, Hong Wang, Fei Liu, Yaping Zhao, Qingyu Guo
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  308-313.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.015
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the clinical visiting and prognosis of schoolchildren in Xi’an after immature permanent tooth trauma and explore the prognostic factors associated with this type of trauma. Methods Through cluster and simple random sampling surveys, 4 013 pupils in schools from nine districts and four counties in Xi’an were sampled, respectively. All pupils and their parents were requested to complete a questionnaire, and children who had immature permanent tooth trauma answered a separate questionnaire and underwent oral examinations. The data of the survey were analyzed statis-tically. Results The amount of valid questionnaire was 3 641. Clinical visiting rate related to immature permanent tooth trauma of Xi’an schoolchildren was low (38.2%). Gender and trauma type were the factors related to clinical visiting for dental trauma concerns. The incidence of poor prognosis was 29.7%. The incidence of poor prognosis of patients with clinical visiting (35.4%) was higher than that of patients without clinical visiting (20.6%). Conclusion Clinical visiting rate related to immature permanent tooth trauma in Xi’an schoolchildren is extremely low, and incidence of poor prognosis is high.

    Survey and analysis of tooth extraction anxiety of dental patients
    Qingying Cui, Siyu Chen, Shuai Fu, Changbin Zhang, Ming Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  314-318.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.016
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    Objective This study aims to understand the current status and analyze the influencing factors of tooth extraction anxiety of dental patients. Methods The General Factor Questionnaire and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) were used to survey and analyze tooth extraction anxiety of 800 dental patients. Single-factor and multi-factor analyses were used for statistical data analysis. Results A total of 768 qualified questionnaires were received out of 800, the efficiency was 96%. The mean MDAS score was 10.21±3.29. The prevalence percentage of dental anxiety was 14.7%. Significant statistical differences of the incidence of dental anxiety were observed with regard to sex, age, tooth extraction time, accompanying relatives and friends, before tooth extraction, tooth extraction experience for family and friends, pain tolerance, mental health state before tooth extraction, and self-reported oral health status (P<0.05. By contrast, no significant statistical differences in the incidence of dental anxiety were observed with regard to educational level, tooth extraction type, national life experience, profession, and personality (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk factors of dental anxiety were sex, accompanying relatives and friends, mental health state before tooth extraction, and self-rated oral health status. Conclusion The prevalence percentage of tooth extraction anxiety is high for dental patients. Gender, age, health satisfaction, tooth extraction time, accom-panying relatives and friends, before tooth extraction, tooth extraction experience for family and friends, pain tolerance, mental health state before tooth extraction, and self-reported oral health status are the influencing factors of dental anxiety.

    Pharmacokinetics and drug safety of oral infectious disease during pregnancy
    Hongyu Li, Yachuan Zhou, Xue-dong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  319-324.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.017
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    Pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of physiologic changes resulting in higher risk of oral infectious diseases. There is emerging evidence showing that irrational dental treatment and drug therapy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including infant malformation or spontaneous abortion. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of medications in pregnant women and the fetus and introduces a guideline for drug therapy and common dental drugs used during pregnancy.

    Relationship between interleukins in the saliva and oral cavity cancer
    Dikan Wang, Guiqing Liao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  325-330.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.018
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    Saliva is being attached great importance for its application in illness diagnosis and have more advantage on the diagnose in oral cavity cancer (OCC). Studies have showed that interleukin (IL) in the saliva could be used as a potential biomarker for OCC diagnosis. Moreover, they have a close connection with tumor genesis, invasion, and metastasis in OCC. Therefore, we reviewed research progress on the relationship between salivary interleukins and OCC.

    Research progress on the relationship between oral microbes and digestive system diseases
    Bolei Li, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou, Xian Peng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  331-335.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.019
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    The human microbiome project promoted further understanding on human oral microbes. Besides oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer, oral microbes are closely associated with systematic diseases. They have a close connection with digestive system diseases and even contribute to the origination and progression of colorectal cancer. By reviewing recent studies involving oral microbe-related digestive systemic diseases, we aim to propose the con-siderable role of oral microbes in relation to digestive systemic diseases and the way of oral microbes to multiple organs of digestive system.

    Advances in salivary protein glycosylation and its relationship with systemic and oral diseases
    Rui Ma, Xian Peng, Yi Xu, Dingyu Duan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  336-341.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.020
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    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important protein post-translational modifications that can affect life activities by endowing the protein with various structural and functional features. Saliva is an easy-to-obtain, noninvasive body fluid that contains components originating from serum, gingival crevicular fluid, and oropharyngeal mucosae. In recent years, understanding of saliva has been constantly updated with the developments in related research. Studies have shown that salivary proteins can be used as diagnostic markers for certain diseases, and changes of protein glycosylation in saliva are generally considered to be related to many diseases. In this review, salivary protein glycosylation and its relationship with systemic and oral diseases were discussed.

    Teratomas on the palate and tongue with cleft palate: a case report
    Jian Wang, Guangpeng Yan, Yuanyuan Sun, Chao Guo, Xiaochun Lei, Jun Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  342-343.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.021
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    Teratomas is a germ cell tumors, which is rare in the upper palatal and lingual. This article presents a patient with teratomas on the palate and tongue accompanied with cleft palate. The clinical manifestations and histopathological characteristics of teratomas are discussed according to relevant literatures.

    Implant prosthesis design scheme for sophisticated congenital partial edentia
    Weijia Luo, Li Chen, Guomin Ou
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(3):  344-347.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.03.022
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    Sophisticated congenital partial edentia are often accompanied by severe shortage of bone height and width due to the absence of permanent teeth; such condition will affect implant placement. This study aimed to display the different typical implant rehabilitation schemes we designed for sophisticated congenital partial edentia cases with severely atrophic alveolar bone.