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Table of Content
01 February 2018, Volume 36 Issue 1
  • Orginal Article
    Occlusion design of edentulous implant prosthesis
    Xueyang Zhang, Yanhong Huang, Pei Chen, Pan Jiang, Yarong Wang, Yuan. Su
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  1-3.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.001
    Abstract ( 1015 )   HTML ( 69 )   PDF(pc) (3484KB) ( 1425 )   Save
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    The occlusion design of dental implants is related to the growing popularity of dental implantology. This paper discusses the occlusion design of the edentulous implant prosthesis and the relationships between stress change and the alveolar bone and between the occlusal design and implantation complications. The horizontal relationship of condyle, the design of the canine-guided occlusion, and the similarities and differences between the dental implant and the natural teeth on biteforce response are mentioned.

    Association between the dental caries and the human leucocyte antigen DQB1 allele polymorphisms among the Uygur and Han children in Xinjiang
    Ruihan Zhang, Xiaobing Li, Liping Wang, Yishan Liu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  4-8.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.002
    Abstract ( 586 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF(pc) (5265KB) ( 397 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the association between human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 allele polymorphisms and the presence dental caries among the Uygur and Han children in Xinjiang. Methods HLA-DQB1 allele in the Uygur and Han children with dental caries and healthy control in Xinjiang was tested (n=40) using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) DNA parting technology. Results A total of five specific loci were detected in the HLA-DQB1 locus among the Uygur and Han children. The frequency of the HLA-DQB1*02 allele in the Han group with severe caries (12.5%) was significantly lower than in the control group (32.5%) (P<0.05, OR=0.297). Moreover, the frequency of the HLA-DQB1*05 allele in the Uygur group with severe caries (37.5%) was significantly higher than in the control group (17.5%) (P<0.05, OR=2.829). Conclusion Caries susceptibility among the Uygur and Han children in Xinjiang is related to the HLA-DQB1 allele. The HLA-DQB1*02 allele may protect against caries among the Han children, whereas the HLA-DQB1*05 allele may be responsible for the susceptibility of the Uygur children to caries.

    Influence of dexamethasone on the cell polarity and PAR complex of the embryonic epithelial cells in the palate
    Li Ma, Bing Shi, Qian Zheng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  9-16.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.003
    Abstract ( 520 )   HTML ( 36 )   PDF(pc) (7629KB) ( 425 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to investigate whether dexamethasone (DEX) can down-regulate the PAR complex and disrupt the cell polarity in the palatal epithelium during palatal fusion. Methods Pregnant rats were randomly divided into control and DEX groups, which were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% sodium chloride (0.1 mL) and DEX (6 mg·kg-1), respectively, every day from E10 to E12. The palatal epithelial morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence staining, Western Blot analysis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression of PAR3, PAR6, and aPKC. Results The incidence of cleft palate in DEX group (46.15%) was significantly higher than that in control group (3.92%), and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=24.335, P=0.00). DEX can also retard the growth of the palatal shelves and the short palatal shelves. The morphology and arrangement of MEE cells changed from polarized bilayer cells to nonpolarized monolayer ones. Additionally, the spherical structure decreased, which caused the cleft palate. PAR3 and PAR6 were only detected in the palatal epithelium, and aPKC was expressed in the palatal epithelium and mesenchyme. DEX can reduce the expression levels of PAR3, PAR6, and aPKC in the protein and gene levels. Conclusion DEX can down-regulate the complex gene expression in the MEE cells, thereby destroying the cell polarity and causing cleft palate.

    Preparation and characterization of oriented scaffolds derived from cartilage extracellular matrix and silk fibroin
    Binhong Teng, Yanhong Zhao, Lianyong Wang, Qiang Yang, Hongfa Li, Yunjie Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  17-22.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.004
    Abstract ( 734 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (6019KB) ( 435 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to prepare oriented scaffolds derived from a cartilage extracellular matrix (CECM) and silk fibroin (SF) and use to investigate their physicochemical property in cartilage tissue engineering. Methods Oriented SF-CECM scaffolds were prepared from 6% mixed slurry (CECM:SF=1:1) through modified temperature gradient-guided thermal-induced phase separation, followed by freeze drying. The SF-CECM scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histological staining analyses and determination of porosity, water absorption, and compressive elastic modulus of the materials. Results The SEM image showed that the SF-CECM scaffolds contained homogeneous reticular porous structures in the cross-section and vertical tubular structures in the longitudinal sections. Histological staining showed that cells were completely removed, and the hybrid scaffolds retained proteogly can and collagen. The composition of the scaffold was similar to that of natural cartilage. The porosity, water absorption rate, and vertical compressive elastic modulus of the scaffolds were 95.733%±1.010%, 94.309%±1.302%, and (65.40±4.09) kPa, respectively. Conclusion The fabricated SF-CECM scaffolds exhibit satisfactory physicochemical and biomechanical properties and thus could be an ideal scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Neurotrophin 3 promotes osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells
    Wei Lei, Yue Ma, Aishu Ren
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  23-28.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.005
    Abstract ( 881 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (5692KB) ( 470 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the effect of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) on the osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (hDFCs). Methods hDFCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Immunocytochemical staining was used to identify the origin of hDFCs. The effects of different NT-3 concentrations on hDFCs proliferation were detected by using CCK-8 assay. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and mRNA expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteocalcin (OCN) were determined to investigate the effects of NT-3 on hDFCs osteogenesis. The difference in the number of mineralized nodules was detected using alizarin red staining. Results Vimentin and cytokeratin staining results showed that hDFCs originated from the mesenchymal cells. NT-3 exerted no evident effect on hDFCs proliferation. The ALP activity and the BMP-2 and OCN mRNA expression levels of hDFCs were significantly improved under treatment with different NT-3 concentrations (25, 50, and 100 ng·mL-1) compared with those in the control group. BMP-2 and OCN mRNA relative expression levels of hDFCs reached the highest when the NT-3 concentration was 100 ng·mL-1. The number of mine-ralized nodules reached the maximum when the hDFCs were treated with 50 and 100 ng·mL-1 NT-3. Conclusion Appropriate mass concentration of NT-3 can promote the osteogenic differentiation of hDFCs.

    Expression and clinical significance of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and phospho-protein kinase B in tongue squamous cell carcinoma
    Lingling Li, Shengzhi Wang, Xuyang Liu, Hao Liu, Zhaohua. Gong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  29.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.006
    Abstract ( 607 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (4010KB) ( 399 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues. MethodsThe Pyk2 and p-AKT protein levels were detected via immunohistochemistry in 45 cases of TSCC tissues and 30 cases of adjacent nontumor tissues. The relationships of the two protein levels and clinicopathological characteristics were also analyzed. ResultsPyk2 and p-AKT levels were significantly higher in the TSCC tissues than in the adjacent nontumor tissues (P<0.05). Nontumor tissues showed poor or no expression. The expression levels of the two proteins were positively correlated (γs=0.412). The expression of Pyk2 was associated with histopathological differentiation type, regional lymph node metastasis, and TNM staging (P<0.05), but not with age and gender. The expression of p-AKT was only related to histopatholo-gical differentiation types (P<0.05). Conclusion The abnormal expression of Pyk2 and p-AKT proteins might be closely related to the development and progression of TSCC. Joint detection can be used as an indicator to estimate the degree of TSCC.

    Experimental study of demineralized dentin matrix on osteoinduction and related cells identification
    Shengyin Yang, Ping Chen, Jibo Bao, Yixin Ding, Jinyang Zou, Zhigang Xie
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  33-38.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.007
    Abstract ( 1003 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (5358KB) ( 737 )   Save
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    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the theoretical framework of cells and the forms of osteogenesis in the mechanism by which demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) induces osteogenesis. Methods A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. A total of 4 erector spinae bags were created in each animal. A total of 3 erector spinae bags were implanted with DDM by random selection, whereas the remaining one erector spinae bag was not implanted with DDM. The rabbits were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks, and the samples were obtained. The samples were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and immunohistochemical staining to identify the mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and osteoclasts. Results The results of HE staining showed that in the third week, cartilage- and bone-like matrices, as well as the osteoblast-like cells, were observed. The results of immunohisto-chemical staining showed that the expressions of CD44, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen Ⅱ were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion DDM has good histocompatibility and osteoinduction. In addition, induced ectopic osteogenesis mode mainly occurs in the endochondral bone.

    K (lysine) acetyltransferase 2A affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells through the canonical Wnt pathway
    Wucheng Guo, Jieli Cheng, Zhengyi Yang, Yi Zhang, Enliang He, Jun Qian, Jingjing Song, Jin Sun, Lin Yuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  39-45.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.008
    Abstract ( 583 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF(pc) (7069KB) ( 533 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the mechanism of K (lysine) acetyltransferase 2A (KAT2A) regulation and control on the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Methods The expression levels of KAT2A in PDLSCs were compared from each generation of the normal (H-PDLSCs) and periodontitis tissues (P-PDLSCs). The influences of KAT2A gene interference on the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs were also detected. In addition, the influences of the KAT2A gene interference to the canonical Wnt pathway and ligands were detected. The upstream and down-stream relationships between KAT2A and canonical Wnt pathway were also determined. Results The decreased expression of KAT2A in PDLSCs from the inflammatory tissue in each generation was compared with that in PDLSCs from the healthy tissue, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). When the KAT2A gene was disrupted, the osteogenesis ability of PDLSC was declined, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The canonical Wnt pathway was activated, and the antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) was reduced. After the DKK-1 addition, the osteogenic differentiation of the disturbed PDLSCs was recovered, and KAT2A was unaffected. Conclusion The KAT2A expression in PDLSCs was decreased because of perio-dontitis. The classical Wnt pathway was activated to inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of the cells.

    Antibacterial dental adhesive containing nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers
    Deying Chen, Ge Hu, Chuanjian Zhou, Jianhua Ge, Junling Wu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  46-51.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.009
    Abstract ( 743 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF(pc) (6647KB) ( 641 )   Save
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    Objective This investigation aimed to develop a novel antibacterial dental adhesive containing nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers and measure the dentin bonding strength, mechanical properties, and antibacterial property of the novel adhesive in vitro.Methods Novel nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers containing quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl were synthesized on the basis of previous research. These novel nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers were added into the dental adhesive to prepare novel nanoantibacterial dental resin composite at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10%; 0% was used as control. Dentin shear bonding test was used to evaluate the bonding strength. Flexural test was utilized to measure the novel resin composite flexural strength and elastic modulus. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was formed. Colony forming unit, lactic acid production, and live/dead assay of the biofilm on novel dental adhesive were calculated to assess the effect of novel dental adhesive on human dental plaque microcosm biofilm. Results The dentin shear bond strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus were 28.9 MPa, 86.6 MPa, and 4.2 GPa, respectively, when the nanoantibacterial inorganic filler mass fraction in the dental adhesive reached approximately 5.0%. Consequently, the dentin shear bond strength and mechanical properties signi-ficantly increased. Addition of 2.5% nanoantibacterial inor-ganic fillers into the dental adhesive exerted no adverse effect on the mechanical properties significantly (P>0.05). Dental adhesive containing 5% or more nanoantibacterial inorganic fillers inhibited the metabolic activity of the dental plaque micro-cosm biofilm significantly, thereby displaying a strong antibacterial potency (P<0.05).Conclusion This novel antibacterial dental adhesive, which contained 5.0% nanoantibacterial inorganic filler, exhibited promising bonding strength, mechanical property, and antibacterial ability. Hence, this adhesive can be potentially used in caries inhibition in dental application.

    Cosmetic technique application on the modification of lip deformity after cleft lip surgery
    Lixian Chen, Huajun Wang, Caixia Gong, Qian Zheng, Bing Shi, Bihe. Zhang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  52-55.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.010
    Abstract ( 788 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF(pc) (3876KB) ( 501 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to explore the effect of cosmetic technique on the modification of lip deformity after cleft lip surgery. Methods A total of 35 patients with postoperative cleft lip and who needed two-stage repair due to the nasolabial deformity were selected. Cosmetic technique was used to modify their lip deformities prior to the surgery. Front photos of the patients were taken before and after modification of their lip deformities. These photos were subsequently assessed by both the patients and the medical staff. The visual analogue method, Asher-McDade aesthetic index, and Mortier PB scale were used by patients and medical staff to evaluate changes in the lip shape by the cosmetic technique. Results Prior to the cosmetic technique application, the mean self-score of the patients and the mean scores of the medical staff were 56±13 and 3.22±1.11 points, respectively. After the cosmetic technique application, the mean self-score of the patients and the mean scores of the medical staff were 67±12 and 2.85±1.03 points, respectively. The differences were statistically significant for both the patients and the medical staff (P<0.05). Conclusion Appropriate use of the cosmetic technique can modify the lip deformity after the cleft lip surgery to a certain degree. The use of this technique exerts evident effects in restoring the symmetry of lip peak and the continuity of the labial arch and in highlighting the philtrum column.

    Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model
    Xinggang Liu, Xiaoxian Chen
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  56-59.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.011
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (4088KB) ( 331 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Methods Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chair-side digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. Results The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs be-tween the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). Conclusion The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

    Application of bone-support guide by three-dimensional printing technique in maxillary LeFortⅠosteotomy
    Zhenyu Qu, Qian Wang, Yan Zhao, Lanlan Sheng, Weidong Ma, Weiguo Qu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  60-65.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.012
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    Objective This study aimed to investigate the application of an osteotomy template and a repositioning template manufactured by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique in maxillary LeFortⅠosteotomy. Methods The patient group consisted of eight patients with maxillary hypoplasia who underwent LeFortⅠosteotomy. The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.6 years old. All patients were scanned using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to create a 3D model of the maxillary. The osteotomy and repositioning templates of the LeFortⅠosteotomy were manufactured by 3D printing technique. All bones were cut by the same doctor with extensive orthognathic surgery experience. One part of the template guided the osteotomy, and the other repositioned the maxilla during operation. Postoperative CBCT scan was performed, and the virtual plan was compared with the postoperative surgical result using an image fusion of the CBCT dataset by analyzing measurements between six landmarks relative to three reference planes. Statistical analysis was performed, and accuracy was reported using SPSS 16.0 software package. Results Primary healing of incisions was observed in all patients, and no serious complications were observed. The maximum mean values were 1.35 mm, and the displacement error was UL6 to the coronal plane. The maximum standard deviation was 0.85, and the maximum standard error was 0.30, which was acceptable by clinical standards. Conclusion The application of osteotomy and repositioning templates manufactured by 3D printing technique in maxillary LeFortⅠosteotomy was safe and can enable doctors to complete a surgery accurately.

    Comparative study on the shade matching performance of dental students under D55 and D65 light sources conditions
    Yiqing Xiong, Gang Li, Yunhong Lin, Zhiyun Cao, Yanan Wei, Wei Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  66-70.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.013
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    Objective This study aimed to compare the effect of D55 and D65 light sources on the visual colorimetry performance of dental students by using a homemade light-source shelf. Methods Two Vitapan 3D-Master shade guides were randomly selected. One set was used as shade guides. Ten commonly used shade tabs of 2L2.5, 2M2, 2R2.5, 3M2, 3R2.5, 3L1.5, 3R1.5, 3L2.5, 4R1.5, and 4L1.5 were selected from the other set with covered value marks and numbered from 1 to 10. After the colorimetric training, 49 undergraduate dental students were randomly divided into two groups. Each student randomly selected two of the 10 shade tabs, and the colors were subsequently matched under D65 and D55 light sources from a distance of approximately 40 cm. The average color difference (ΔE) between the color selected by each participant and the actual color of shade tabs was calculated. Paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results The ΔE values between the color selected by each participant and the actual color of the shade tabs under the D55 light source varied from 0 to 6.540. The average value was 2.501. The ΔE values between the color selected by each participant and the actual color of the shade tabs under the D65 light source varied from 0 to 6.610. The average value was 2.530. No statistically significant difference was observed between the results under the two light sources (P=0.921). Conclusion Both D55 and D65 daylight lamps can be used for daily dental colorimetry. These two different color temperatures showed no significant difference.

    Application of periodontal microsurgery in the augmentation of attached gingiva around an implant
    Mingdeng Rong, Yanhong Huang, Haibin Lu, Gelin Xu, Shaobing Li, Yuan Su, Pei Chen, Pan Jiang, Xueyang. Zhang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  71-75.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.014
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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of periodontal microscopic surgery on the augmen-tation of attached gingiva and determined the clinical principle on how to use minimally invasive surgery to improve the surgery success rate.Methods Twenty patients with insufficient attached gingiva around implants were selected. Periodontal micros-copic surgery for free gingival graft was performed to increase the width of the attached gingiva around the implants. The survival state of the free gingiva was observed after surgery, and the width of the attached gingiva around the implants was recorded before and after surgery and 1 year after surgery. The shrinkage rate of the free gingival flap 1 year after surgery was analyzed to evaluate the stability of the flap. Results The flaps of the 20 cases all survived. One year after the operation, the width of the attached gingiva was (3.05±0.44) mm, which increased compared with that of preoperation (2.56±0.31) mm and decreased compared with that of postoperative day (2.13±0.28) mm. The shrinkage rate of the attached gingiva was 41.22%±5.04%. Conclusion The application of microscopic surgery on the augmentation surgery of attached gingiva can increase the success rate and improve the quality and quantity of attached gingiva around implants.

    Experimental research on Arginine-gingipain A gene vaccine from Porphyromonas gingivalis that prevents peri-implantitis in Beagle dogs
    Chuanhua Li, Zhifeng Wang, Lina Zhu, Xin Fan, Jing Lan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  76-81.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.015
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    Objective This study aims to use Arginine-gingipain A gene vaccine (pVAX1-rgpA) to immunize adult Beagle dogs and to evaluate its effect during peri-implantitis progression and development. Methods Plasmid pVAX1-rgpA was constructed. The second and third bilateral mandible premolars of 15 adult Beagle dogs were extracted, and the implants were placed immediately. After 3 months, the animals were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C. Afterward, the animals were immunized thrice with plasmid pVAX1-rgpA, with heat-killed Porphyromonas gingivalis, or pVAX1, respectively. IgG in the serum and secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after 2 weeks of immunization. Peri-implantitis was induced with cotton ligatures fixed around the neck of implants. Probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing were recorded. All animals were sacrificed after ligaturation for 6 weeks. Decalcified sections with thickness of 50 μm were prepared and dyed with methylene blue to observe the bone phenotype around implants. Results Levels of serum IgG and sIgA in saliva were higher in groups A and B after immunization than before the process (P<0.05) and higher than those in group C (P<0.05). However, no difference was observed between groups A and B (P>0.05). At 4 and 6 weeks after ligaturation, PD of the ligatured side in group C was higher than that in groups A and B (P<0.05). On the other hand, no difference was identified between groups A and B (P>0.05). Bone loss in group A was sig-nificantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). Abundant inflammatory cells and bacteria were present in the bone loss area around the implants in the three groups, as identified through hard tissue section observation. However, group C presented the most number of inflammatory cells and bacteria in the bone loss area around the implants. Conclusion IgG and sIgA can be generated by immunity with rgpA DNA vaccine, which can significantly slow down bone loss during expe-rimental peri-implantitis in dogs.

    Disheveled 2 around the implant at an early stage of hyperlipidemic rats
    Xiaofei Dong, Hui Wang, Jing Lan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  82-86.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.016
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    Objective This study aims to investigate the expression of disheveled 2 (Dvl2) around the implant of hyperli-pidemic rats at an early stage after the implantation. Methods A total of 24 Wistar rats were divided equally into the experi-mental group fed with high-fat diet group and control group fed with a normal diet. After 8 weeks, the serum lipid levels were detected, and rats received implants in the femur metaphysis. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 5 days after implantation, and the bones around implants were obtained. Methylene blue-acid fuchsin staining was performed to observe the implant-bone interface. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), cathepsin K (CatK), and Dvl2. Dvl2 Western blot or immunoprecipitation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination were also conducted. Results In the experimental group, less osteoblasts, lower expression of Runx2 and Dvl2, and lower Dvl2 phosphorylation (P<0.05) than those of the control group were observed; furthermore, the CatK expression and Dvl2 ubiquitination were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Hyperlipidemia may suppress bone remodeling around the implant at an early stage by Dvl2 down-regulation, phosphorylation, and up-regulated ubiquitination.

    Current situation and prospect for orthodontic thermoplastic materials
    Ruyi Wang, Zhihe Zhao, Yu. Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  87-91.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.017
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    美观舒适的透明保持器及隐形矫治器越来越受到患者们的欢迎,而其主要制作材料热压膜材料也逐渐受到了学者们的关注。正畸用热压膜材料主要是一类性能各异的聚合物,诸多学者研究了不同种类热压膜材料的不同性能,包括其应力释放、应力松弛、老化等。同时为了获得拥有更优秀性能的材料,共混改性等方法也用于材料的研究中。本文将就热压膜材料的种类、性能及影响因素和发展展望作一综述。

    Mechanisms and implications of cancer cell dormancy in head and neck carcinoma
    Xiaolei Gao, Xinhua Liang, Yaling Tang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  92-98.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.018
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    Disease metastasis and relapse in many cancer patients several years (even decades) after surgical remission have been recently acknowledged as cases of cancer dormancy. Although cases of minimal residual disease are well documented, knowledge on its biological mechanisms and clinical implications remains limited. To date, numerous reviews have summarized the three potential models that may explain this phenomenon, including the angiogenic, immunologic, and cellular dormancy. In this study, we discuss newly uncovered mechanisms governing tumor cell dormancy in head and neck cancer, emphasizing on the crosstalk between dormant tumor cells and their microenvironments. Additionally, we explore the mechanisms on the reactivation of dormant residual tumor cells in anatomical sites, including the lymph nodes and bone marrow.

    Effect of inflammaging on periodontitis
    Qi Wang, Xinyi Zhou, Yi Ding
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  99-103.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.019
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    Inflammaging is the chronic, systematic, and controllable upregulation of a pro-inflammation state with advan-cing age. Chronic low-grade inflammation accompanied by sustained stimuli is correlated with various age-related diseases (ARDs). Recent studies on ARDs have prompted further research interest in the inner mechanisms underlying inflammaging to establish prevention and treatment plans for inflammatory diseases. In this article, we discuss inflammaging and its signi-ficant role in periodontitis.

    Recent achievements in the microbiological etiology of dental caries
    Jing Chen, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou, Xian. Peng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  104-108.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.020
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    Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of the oral cavity. The bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the sole pathogen that causes this disease. However, substantial evidence suggests that prevention and treatment strategies developed from traditional “cariogenic pathogen theory” are inefficient in reducing the prevalence of dental caries. An increasing number of individuals adopt the ecological view of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Recent technological improvements have enabled the detection and analysis of oral microorganisms, and many studies have focused on this area. The core microbiota is defined as a cluster of microbes playing critical roles in the initial and development phases of dental caries and may provide future direction for microorganism-related etiological studies.

    Treatment of a patient with considerably thin alveolar bone and severe open bite
    Haiya Zhuo, Zhou Hu, Qing. Zhao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2018, 36(1):  109-112.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2018.01.021
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    This case report describes the treatment of a 25-year-old woman with a severe open bite. This patient presented a grade Ⅲ open bite, considerably thin alveolar bone, and evident labial buccal and lingual root form. The open bite was cor-rected by fixed orthodontic treatment and masticatory exercises. However, the increased pressure in the labial muscle caused by lip muscle exercise suppressed the canines, which resulted in the protrusion of the apices of canine roots out of the alveolar bone. Afterward, HX brackets, instead of self-locking, were used and bonded reversely in the occlusal-gingival direction on the upper canines. The lip muscle exercises were decreased. After adjustment, the roots penetrated back into the cancellous bone, the severe open bite was corrected, and a normal overbite and overjet were achieved. ClassⅠcanine and molar relation-ships were established. The masticatory function and profile were both considerably improved. This case report showed that a severe nonskeletal open bite can be corrected using orthodontic treatments combined with masticatory exercises.