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Table of Content
01 October 2013, Volume 31 Issue 5
  • Comparative study of the diagnostic values of radio visio graphy, cone-beam computed tomography, and transparent teeth in the in vitro diagnosis of the first molar root canal system
    Zhang Zhiyong, Sun Jie
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  441-447.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.001
    Abstract ( 1417 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (4975KB) ( 941 )   Save
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    Objective  To compare and analyze the performances of radio visio graphy (RVG), cone-beam computed to-mography (CBCT), and transparent teeth in diagnosing the first molar root canal system in vitro; to provide an anatomical image of the first molar root canal therapy and analyze the relationship between the first molar root canal image and root canal anatomy. Methods  A total of 269 extracted first molars were examined by RVG and CBCT in the mesiodistal and buccolin-gual sections. Transparent teeth were then constructed using dying root canals. The root canal system and the communicating branches between the pipes of the coronal 2/3 and apical 1/3 areas of each root canal were displayed using RVG, CBCT, and transparent teeth. The performance of CBCT in the diagnosis was evaluated. Results The display rate of the first molar root (coronal 2/3) was 96.55% in CBCT. A significant difference was found between CBCT and the transparent teeth in the apical 1/3 area of the first molars (P<0.05). The shapes of the mesial roots of the mandibular and maxillary first molars exhibited significant variance. The incidence rates of double and multiroot canals and pipe transport were high. Conclusion  CBCT and transparent teeth exhibit nearly equal performance in displaying the coronal 2/3 area of the root canal system. However, the performance of transparent teeth in displaying the apical 1/3 area is higher than that of CBCT. Meanwhile, the RVG-provided display of the multiroot canal and bifurcate root canals is limited. The incidence rates of double or multiroot canals and pipe transport in the mesial roots of the mandibular and maxillary first molars are high. CBCT has numerous advantages in dis-playing the root canal; it is also the most reliable method for diagnosing root diseases without trauma.

    Establishment of animal model of rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap to reconstruct tongue defect
    Li Jun, Zhong Liangjun, Mu Hetaer·huojia, Duo Likun, Yan Guangpeng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  448-452.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.002
    Abstract ( 1036 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF(pc) (3458KB) ( 573 )   Save
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    Objective   This study aims to investigate the feasibility of tongue reconstruction by a rectus abdominis muscu-loperitoneal flap with neurovascular pedicled in a canine model. Methods   Twelve Beagle dogs were enrolled to the experi-ment. The animals were randomly divided into three groups, two of which (group A and B) had nerve anastomosis. The left sides were experimental sides, whereas the right sides were control sides. Twelve weeks after operation, electrophysiological test was performed to detect hypoglossal nerve latency amplitude and conduction velocity as well as to evaluate the reinner-vation of the rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap. Results   Among the 12 Beagle dogs, nine animal tongue reconstruc-tion models by rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap with neurovascular pedicled were successful, whereas one male Beagle dog died from ventral hernia 3 d after the operation, two female rectus peritoneal flaps were abandoned because their arterial anatomy differed from the male, which was not ideal. Hypoglossal nerve conduction velocity of group A and B were restored to the normal side of the 40%, 30%. Conclusion   Animal models of tongue reconstruction can be established by a rectus abdo-minis musculoperitoneal flap with neurovascular pedicled in Beagle dogs. Denervated rectus abdominis musculoperitoneal flap can regain hypoglossal nerve innervation. Hypoglossal nerve functions partly recover.

    Effect of an arginine-containing polishing paste on Streptococcus mutans adhesion to exposed dentin surfaces
    Liu Yinchen, Fu Dongjie, Huang Cui, Pei Dandan, Sun Hualing.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  453-456.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.003
    Abstract ( 978 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (5588KB) ( 849 )   Save
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    Objective   To evaluate the effect of an arginine-containing antihypersensitivity polishing paste on Streptococ-cus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion to treated dentin. Methods   Dentin discs were treated with acid to expose dentin tubules, and then polished with either pumice or a polishing paste containing arginine. The surface roughness of the treated dentin was measured. The effects of dentin treatment on S. mutans adhesion and glucosyltransferase (GTFs) gene expression were also evaluated. Results   The surface roughness decreased after polishing with both pumice and arginine-containing polishing paste. Moreover, the polishing paste affected gtfB and gtfC expressions. Conclusion   The arginine-containing polishing paste affects S. mutans adhesion, as well as gtfB and gtfC expressions. The polishing paste may be used to prevent caries in exposed dentin areas.

    Three-dimensional finite-element analysis of maxillary protraction based on labiolingual appliance
    Liu Chang, Zhu Xianchun, Zhang Xing, Guo Jingfang, Tang Guanqun.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  457-462.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.004
    Abstract ( 890 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (10860KB) ( 1014 )   Save
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    Objective  This study aims to analyze the biomechanical effects of four sutures that are related to maxillary growth during a maxillary protraction treatment cycle based on labiolingual appliance. Methods  A three-dimensional simu-lation of labiolingual appliance was performed based on a three-dimensional finite-element maxillofacial model combined with solid-modeled sutures. Results  The displacement and stress distributions were calculated. The labiolingual appliance was suitable for patients with underbites or deep overbites. Sutura frontomaxillaris and sutura zygomaticomaxillaris were vital to the forward displacement and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillary. The changes in sutura zygomaticotempo-ralis and sutura palatine were not significant. Conclusion  The influences of the labiolingual appliance on the sutures during the treatment cycle of maxillary protraction can be effectively simulated by the three-dimensional finite-element maxillofa-cial model.

    Periodontal treatment for cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review
    Deng Linkai, Li Chunjie, Li Qian, Zhang Yukui, Zhao Hongwei.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  463-467.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.005
    Abstract ( 995 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF(pc) (1718KB) ( 587 )   Save
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    Objective  To evaluate the efficacy of periodontal treatment for the management of cardiovascular risk fac-tors. Methods  Eligible studies in Cochrane Controlled Trials Register/CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) were searched until October 13, 2011. References of the included studies were hand searched. Two reviewers assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data of the included studies in duplicate. Meta-analysis was con-ducted with Revman 5.1. Results  Six randomized controlled trials involving 682 participants were included. One case had low risk of bias, another one had moderate risk of bias, and the remaining four had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that periodontal treatment has no significant effect on C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (P>0.05). However, the treatment had a significant effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=0.05, 95% CI (0.00, 0.09), P=0.04]. Conclusion  Periodontal treatment has good effects on controlling high-density lipo-protein cholesterol although more randomized controlled trials must be conducted to verify its effectiveness.

    Microarc oxidation of titanium surfaces on osteoblast morphology and cytoskeleton
    Qiao Lei, Ding Zhongjuan, Zhang Liya, Niu Tao.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  468-471.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.006
    Abstract ( 1049 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (7118KB) ( 878 )   Save
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    Objective  This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the microarc oxidation surface on cell morphology and cytoskeleton. Methods  Pure titanium with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 1 mm was divided into four groups: grooved surfaces (group G); sandblasted surfaces (group SB); grooved microarc oxidation surfaces (group GMAO); and sandblasted microarc oxidation surfaces (group SBMAO). Osteoblast cells were cultured in each group. The morphology and proliferation of the cells on the titanium surface were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cytoskeleton was evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Results  The osteoblasts were inoculated after 12 h; these osteoblasts then spread along the surface of the titanium plate. In GMAO and SBMAO groups, the osteoblasts converged in the hole. The actin fibers in each group were clearly visible. In particular, the actin fibers in GMAO and SBMAO groups were arranged in parallel and formed bundles that extended into the holes. Conclusion  After microarc oxidation, the tita-nium surface significantly affected the morphology and cytoskeleton of osteoblasts.

    Analysis of velopharyngeal morphology in operated cleft palate patients with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad
    Lu Yong, Shi Bing, Wang Zhiyong, Xu Mingyao.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  472-475.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.007
    Abstract ( 1302 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF(pc) (1253KB) ( 688 )   Save
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    Objective  To study the relationship between velopharyngeal morphology and velopharyngeal function in operated cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal competence (VPC) with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad. Methods  Three groups were included in the study. The experimental group comprised 18 incomplete cleft patients (group T1) repaired with VPC repaired with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad and 14 incomplete cleft patients (group T2) with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) repaired with Langenbeck’s technique. The control group was composed of 13 normal adults. The outcome of the velopharyngeal function by nasopharyngoscopy and lateral cephalogram was assessed. Skeletal landmarks and measurements were derived from the tracing of lateral cephalo-grams. The measurements included velar length, pharyngeal depth, and adequate ratio of velar length to pharyngeal depth. The cranial base, cervical vertebrae, posterior nasal spine, and the position of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) in the pharyngeal triangle were also analyzed. All data were subjected to student’s t-test of statistical significance. Results  All 18 subjects in group T1 obtained complete velopharyngeal closure. Velopharyngeal closure in seven, five, and two subjects in group T2 was 70%, 50% to 70%, and less than 50%, res-pectively, according to the results of nasopharyngoscopy. The lateral velar length (25.7 mm+2.3 mm) in group T1 was similar to that of the control group (29.9 mm+2.7 mm) (P>0.05). The pharyngeal depth in group T1 was shorter than that in the other two groups, and the adequate ratio (1.43+0.26) was similar to that in the normal group (1.45+0.26). Group T2 had a significantly short velar length (22.9 mm+2.3 mm) and normal pharyngeal depth, resulting in a small length/depth ratio (0.95+0.14) than that in group T1 and the control group. PPW in the pharyngeal triangle was positioned superiorly in group T2 compared with the control group. Conclusion  The velo-pharyngeal morphology of operated cleft palate patients with VPC with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad was found to be similar to that of the normal control group. VPI cleft palate patients are characterized by a shorter palate, smaller adequate ratio (<1.0), slightly counterclockwise-rotated pharyngeal triangle, and superiorly positioned PPW.

    A follow-up study on velopharyngeal airway condition post pharyngoplasty
    Liu Chao, Qin Chuanqi, Wang Yan, Li Wei, Zheng Qian, Shi Bing.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  476-478.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.008
    Abstract ( 1056 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (910KB) ( 550 )   Save
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    Objective  To observe changes in velopharyngeal airway condition post pharyngoplasty. Methods  Thirty-five patients underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty (SPP) or pharyngeal flap (PF). The follow-up period was approximately six months. Duration of velopharyngeal airway obstruction was recorded. Results  Average obstruction duration was (42.8 ± 32.4) d. No significant difference in obstruction duration was found between the SPP and PF groups . Twenty-eight patients complained of mouth and lip dryness. Thirty-four patients experienced snoring while sleeping. Conclusion  Average obstruc-tion duration post pharyngoplasty is 42.8 d. Oral respiration and snoring are common complications.

    Mandibular incisive canal by cone beam CT
    Huang Hong1,2, Liu Peng2,3, Li Xiaodong1,2, Pei Zhongqiu1,2, Yang Xiaozhu1,2, Bai Shi1,2, Huang Yuanding1,2.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  479-482.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.009
    Abstract ( 1119 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF(pc) (2922KB) ( 827 )   Save
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    Objective   This study was conducted to determine the three-dimensional structure, course, and adjacent struc-ture of the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) to ensure safety of dental implantation by cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods   The CBCT images of the bilateral mandibles of 80 patients were retrospectively studied. The diameters of the mandibular incisive canal and the location in the adjacent structure were determined, including the distances between the MIC and the buccal and lingual plates of the alveolar bone, the inferior border of the mandible and the tooth apex, and the horizontal plane of the men-tal foramen. Results   Approximately 78.75% (63 cases) of the CBCT scans showed the presence of the MIC with a mean diameter of 1.21 mm±0.29 mm. The distances from the canal to the inferior border of the mandible and to the tooth apex were 7.82 mm±1.86 mm and 7.24 mm±2.82 mm, respectively. The distances between the canal and the buccal plate as well as between the canal and the lingual plate of the alveolar bone were 3.80 mm±1.37 mm and 4.45 mm±1.34 mm, respectively. The distance from the canal to the horizontal plane of the mental foramen was 5.62 mm±2.21 mm. Conclusion   CBCT could clearly show the three-dimensional structure, course, and adjacent structure of the MIC. Therefore, this technique could provide guidance for dental implantation in clinical applications.

    Clinical investigation of the positioning accuracy of acute pulpitis pain
    Wang Jin, Sun Wei, Ji Aiping.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  483-486.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.010
    Abstract ( 1039 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (999KB) ( 1292 )   Save
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    Objective  This study aims to investigate the positioning accuracy of acute pulpitis pain and its possible factors. Methods   The clinical symptoms and physical signs of 3 432 cases of acute pulpitis were recorded and analyzed by using questionnaire forms, which included age, gender, tooth position, infection origin, pain history, time of acute attack, duration and nature of pain, pain frequency, referred pain areas, percussion examination, temperature pulp test, pulp bleeding, and positioning accuracy. Univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise regression analysis were used for data processing. Results  Pain location was accurately identified by 39.1% of the patients with acute pulpitis. Referred pain could reduce the positioning accuracy of pain (P<0.05), whereas infection originating from the periodontium could raise it (P<0.05). Other factors might not be directly related to positioning accuracy (P>0.05). Conclusion  Some cases of acute pulpitis pain can be located accura-tely. Referred pain and periodontium infection origin are related to the positioning accuracy of acute pulpitis pain. The exact cause of this correlation needs further study.

    Oral health status and its correlation with oral health knowledge among middle-aged people in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur
    Li Zhiqiang, Zhou Jianye, Hu Xiaopan, Yu Zhanhai, Ma Liyang, Lian Weijuan.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  487-492.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.011
    Abstract ( 844 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (1079KB) ( 1030 )   Save
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    Objective  To provide basic data for the prevention of oral diseases in minorities by investigating the oral health status and behavior related to oral health knowledge of individuals aged 35 to 44 years in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur. Methods  The caries and periodontal health of 445 individuals aged 35 to 44 years were examined according to the method and criterion prescribed by the World Health Organization and the Third National Oral Health Epidemiologic Investigation. A questionnaire survey on related oral health knowledge and behavior was conducted. Results  The crown caries prevalence rate in Dongxiang, Baoan, and Yugur were 48.28%, 79.47%, and 67.11%, respectively; the root caries prevalence rates were 38.62%, 69.54%, and 42.95%, respectively. The rates of gum bleeding in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur were 86.90%, 90.07%, and 65.77%, respectively. The rates of dental calculus in Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur were 99.31%, 100.00%, 99.33%, respectively, and the rates of periodontal bags were 68.97%, 67.55%, and 43.62%, respectively. Only 69.84% of the respon-dents brush their teeth every day; 94.90% of the respondents do not floss. Only 20.19% of the respondents contact a doctor for a toothache, and 42.23% of the respondents have never seen a dentist. Conclusion  Caries morbidity is high among the respondents aged 35 to 44 years from Dongxiang, Bonan, and Yugur. The periodontal health status and oral hygiene of the respondents are poor, and behavior related to oral health knowledge is insufficient. Thus, more attention must be provided to the prevention and control of caries and periodontal diseases among middle-aged people in the area.

    Effects of three different root canal preparation techniques on endodontic interappointment pain among the elderly
    Tang Zhongliang, Wang Fang, Mei Lin.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  493-495.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.012
    Abstract ( 1088 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (969KB) ( 760 )   Save
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    Objective  To study the clinical effects of three different root canal preparations on endodontic interappoint-ment pain (EIAP) among the elderly. Methods  In this study, 292 teeth with acute or chronic pulpitis or apical periodontitis were collected from 265 individuals. The samples were divided randomly into three groups. Three root canal preparations were utilized for groups M, G, and H. Modified single length technique with Mtwo instrument was utilized in group M. Mo-dified step-back technique with Gates-Glidden bur was employed in group G, and step-back technique with stainless steel H-files was employed in group H. The EIAP rates were observed and compared. Results  The rates of EIAP for groups M, G, and H were 5.81%, 6.38%, and 19.64%, respectively. A significant difference was observed between groups M and H (P<0.012 5) as well as between groups G and H. However, no significant differences were observed between groups M and G(P>0.012 5). Conclusion  Modified single length technique with Mtwo instrument and modified step-back technique with Gates-Glidden bur can reduce EIAP in the elderly.

    Influence on microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics prepared by two-step sintering
    Jian Chao, Li Ning, Wu Zhikai, Teng Jing, Yan Jiazhen.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  496-499.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.013
    Abstract ( 880 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (3454KB) ( 870 )   Save
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    Objective  To investigate the microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics prepared by two-step sintering. Methods  Nanostructured zirconia powder was dry compacted, cold isostatic pressed, and pre-sintered. The pre-sintered discs were cut processed into samples. Conventional sintering, single-step sintering, and two-step sintering were carried out, and density and grain size of the samples were measured. Afterward, T1 and/or T2 of two-step sintering ranges were measured. Effects on microstructure of different routes, which consisted of two-step sintering and conventional sintering were discussed. The influence of T1 and/or T2 on density and grain size were analyzed as well. Results  The range of T1 was between 1 450 ℃ and 1 550 ℃, and the range of T2 was between 1 250 ℃ and 1 350 ℃. Compared with conventional sintering, finer microstructure of higher density and smaller grain could be obtained by two-step sintering. Grain growth was dependent on T1, whereas density was not much related with T1. However, density was dependent on T2, and grain size was minimally influenced. Conclusion  Two-step sintering could ensure a sintering body with high density and small grain, which is good for optimizing the microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics.

    Effects of a zirconia primer and a self-adhesive resin cement on zirconia bonding
    Chen Chen, Xie Haifeng, Song Xin, Zhang Feimin.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  500-503.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.014
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    Objective  To evaluate the effects of a zirconia primer and a self-adhesive resin cement on the resin bonding zirconia. Methods  Eighty zirconia blocks were manufactured, alumina-sandblasted, and randomly divided into five groups that received surface-treatments using different resin cements: group C, treated with a conventional bisphenol-A diglycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)-based resin cement; group R, treated with a self-adhesive resin cement; group S, silica-coated via a Sol-gel process, conditioned with silane, and then treated with the Bis-GMA-based resin cement; group ZC, conditioned with a zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus) and subsequently treated with the Bis-GMA-based resin cement; group ZR, conditioned with the zirconia primer and treated with the self-adhesive resin cement. Light-cured composite resin cylinders were prepared and bonded on the prepared zirconia blocks. Half of the specimens in each group were water-stored for 24 hours, whereas the remaining specimens were aged by thermocycling. All specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing. Fourier transmission infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) were performed to cha-racterize the zirconia primer. Results  Group C presented the lowest SBS, whereas groups R, ZC, and ZR presented the highest values. Thermocycling had no effect on SBS. FT-IR results showed that Z-Prime Plus contained a benzene ring and a carbonyl group. MS analysis showed that Z-Prime Plus contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, triethylamine. Conclusion  Zirconia primer and self-adhesive resin cement increase the resin bonding of zirconia.

    Effects of periodontal mechanical therapy with local and systemic drugs on carotid artery and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in rats with chronic periodontitis associated with atherosclerosis
    Ren Xiuyun, Chang Le, Yue Zijie, Lin Mu, Shi Xuexue, Sun Lili.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  504-508.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.015
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    Objective  The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and the pathological changes in the carotid artery after periodontal mechanical therapy with local and systemic drugs in SD rats with chronic periodontitis (CP) associated with atherosclerosis (As). Methods Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (group A) and CP+As group (group B). Group B was further divided into the natural process group (B1), the periodontal mechanical treatment group (B2), the periodontal mechanical treatment plus local drugs group (B3), and the periodontal mechanical treatment plus local and systemic drugs group (B4). Each group comprised seven rats. Serum hsCRP levels were evaluated at baseline 1 week after the first periodontal therapy and 1, 3, and 5 weeks after the second periodontal therapy by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The pathological lesion in the carotid artery plaque was stained with hematine and eosin. Results  The levels of serum hsCRP in group B1 increased gradually as time passed and became significantly higher than that of the other groups five weeks after periodontal therapy (P<0.001). The levels of serum hsCRP in groups B2, B3, and B4 increased gradually and reached the peak 1 week after the second periodontal therapy. After that, the levels of serum hsCRP decreased gradually but were still higher than that of group A (P<0.05). The levels of serum hsCRP in groups B3 and B4 were significantly lower than that in group B2 3 and 5 weeks after the second periodontal therapy (P<0.001). Histologic sections revealed increased foam cell infiltration and disordered and destructed elastic fibers in groups B1 and B2. The thickness of the blood vessels in groups B3 and B4 was more uniform than that in groups B1 and B2. The elastic fibers in groups B3 and B4 were lined up in order. Conclusion  Direct periodontal mechanical treatment results in acute, short-term, systemic inflammation and might increase the risk of atherosclerosis in SD rats. However, the levels of serum hsCRP decreased gradually 3 to 5 weeks after therapy. With periodontal mechanical treatment, the benefits of local and systemic drugs are associated with improvement in atherosclerotic lesion progression.

    Histopathological study on the healing of orthodontic implant-bone interface adjacent to extraction
    Zhou Yangming, Hu Yun, Zheng Leilei, Zhao Zhihe, Tang Tian, Deng Feng, Wei Guangxi, Huo Jinfeng, Zhang Xiaoge.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  509-513.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.016
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    Objective  Osseointegration of orthodontic microscrew implant is influenced by tooth extraction. This study aims to evaluate the safety margin of the osseointegration of orthodontic implants by investigating the healing process of the implant-bone interface through histopathological studies and quantitative determination. Methods  Twelve male beagles were selected and randomly divided into four groups. An orthodontic microscrew was implanted beside the tooth extraction area. Animals were killed in 1, 3, 8, and, 12 weeks to investigate tissue response. Histomorphological observation and bone implant contact ratio (BIC) tests were performed at different healing time after implantation. Results  A new bone was formed on the implant-bone interface of the control group. Bone resorptions were also detected in the experimental group 3 weeks after implantation. The BIC level of the control groups increased during the first 8 weeks; no change was observed anymore after the 8th week. On the other hand, the BIC value in the experimental group decreased in the first 3 weeks. It then increased rapidly and reached its peak of 80.08% in the 8th week. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups in the first 3 weeks. After the 3rd week, the BIC value of the experimental group (44.35%) was lower than that of the control group (55.46%) (P<0.01). Conclusion  The healing process after implantation was influenced by tooth extraction. Bone resorption was detected at an early stage. However, vigorous bone remodeling was observed subsequently.

    Expression and significance profile of human beta-defensin-2 in salivary gland tumors and inflammation
    Meng Yusheng, Wang Haiyan, Yu Shuyi, Zhuang Yuan, Wang Feng, Shen Shiyue, Yang Hongyu.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  514-517.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.017
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    Objective  To investigate the expression characteristics of human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) mRNA and pro-tein in salivary gland benign and malignant tumor tissues, as well as in salivary gland inflammation. Methods  The expres-sion of HBD-2 in salivary gland benign tumor, salivary gland cancer, inflammation tissues and normal salivary gland tissues were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR) and immunohisto-chemical. The differences expression of HBD-2 mRNA and protein were analyzed. Results  RT-PCR results showed that HBD-2 mRNA expression in salivary gland benign tumors, salivary gland cancer, and inflammation tissues was 6.468-, 0.334-, and 10.563-fold higher than that in normal tissues, respectively (P<0.05). HBD-2 was expressed in the nuclei of these organs and malignant tissues. Conclusion  HBD-2 mRNA and protein expressions are significantly increased in salivary gland benign tumor tissues and inflammation tissues compared with those in normal salivary gland tissues, but are significantly decreased in salivary gland cancer. The protein nuclear transfer in salivary gland cancer tissues is also significantly increased.

    Relationships of five periodontal pathogens causing subgingival plaque in patients with chronic periodontitis under different periodontal conditions
    Zhou Ting, Xie Hong, Yue Zhaohui.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  518-521.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.018
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    Objective  This study aimed to assess the relationship between the distributions of Haemophilus aggregati-bacter (H. aggregatibacter ), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis ), Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia), Tannerella forsythensis (T. forsythensis ), and Treponema denticola (T. denticola) in subgingival plaque and different periodontal con-ditions of chronic periodontitis. Methods Twenty patients (80 sites) with chronic periodontitis and ten healthy subjects (20 sites) were included. The study sites were distributed into different groups according to the differences in their pocket probing depths (PD). The groups were described as follows: group A, PD≤4 mm; group B, 4 mm<PD≤6 mm; group C, PD>6 mm. Semi-quantification of the subgingival microorganism samples was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization assay. Results  The prevalence rates and quantities of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythensis, and T. den-ticola were significantly higher in groups B and C than in the healthy group. Higher prevalence rates and quantities of P. gingivalis were detected in group A than in the healthy group. The quantities of T. forsythensis and T. denticola were also significantly higher in group C than in group B. However, the prevalence rates and quantities of H. aggregatibacter showed no significant difference among the groups. Conclusion  The prevalence rates and levels of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythensis, and T. denticola possibly increased as the depths of the periodontal pockets increased. The quantity of P. gingi-valis was correlated with the early stage of chronic periodontitis. The quantities of T. forsythensis and T. denticola were asso-ciated with local development of moderate or severe chro-nic periodontitis.

    Mutation analysis of the RUNX2 gene in a family with cleidocranial dysplasia
    Jiang Tao, Jiang Xu, Zhang Yunkui.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  522-525.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.019
    Abstract ( 872 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF(pc) (3581KB) ( 817 )   Save
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    Objective  To analyze the mutations of the RUNX2 gene in a family with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Methods  The general health status of family members with CCD was investigated through propositus verification method. Oral specialized examination and radiological examination were performed. The peripheral venous blood of the proband and her parents and sisters was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the RUNX2 gene from this DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequences were analyzed with the Blastn program. Results  After Blastn analysis, heterozygous C to T transition mutation at nucleotide 568 occurred in exon 2, which converted arginine to tryptophane at codon 190 (c.568C>T, CGG→TGG). Conclusion  RUNX2 gene is responsible for the CCD in the Chinese family under study. The c.568C>T mutation is the molecular basis of the CCD in the family.

    Expression of the estrogen receptor and type collagen in the mandibular condylar cartilage of the human embryo
    Zhang Yuerong, Pang Lei, Liu Zhonglin.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  526-529.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.020
    Abstract ( 808 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF(pc) (8079KB) ( 656 )   Save
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    Objective  To study the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and type Ⅱ collagen in the mandibular con-dylar cartilage of the human embryo. Methods  The expression and localization of ERα, ERβ, and type Ⅱ collagen in the mandibular condylar cartilage of the human embryo were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistoche-mistry staining. Results  Type Ⅱ collagen was primarily localized in the transitional and hypertrophic layers of the condylar cartilage. ERα was mostly expressed in the transitional and hypertrophic cartilaginous layers of the condylar cartilage. ERα was evenly distributed in the cell, whereas ERβ was localized in the nuclei. No expression of type Ⅱcollagen and ER was found in the fibrage and the proliferative layer although minimal expression was found in the calcified cartilage. Conclusion  The distribution of ER and type Ⅱ collagen in the mandibular condylar cartilage was consistent. Estrogen can selectively combine with different subtypes of ER that regulate the ability of the condylar cartilage cells to secrete type Ⅱ collagens.

    Effects of tooth whitening agents and acidic drinks on the surface properties of dental enamel
    Chen Xiaoling, Chen Zhiqun, Lin Yao, Shao Jinquan, Yin Lu.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  530-532.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.021
    Abstract ( 942 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (2752KB) ( 838 )   Save
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    Objective  Using tooth whitening agents (bleaching clip) in vitro and acidic drinks, we conducted a compara-tive study of the changes in enamel surface morphology, Ca/P content, and hardness. Methods  Tooth whitening glue pieces, cola, and orange juice were used to soak teeth in artificial saliva in vitro. Physiological saline was used as a control treatment. The morphology of the four groups was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after the teeth were soaked for 7 and 14 d. The changes in Ca/P content and microhardness were analyzed. Results  The enamel surfaces of the teeth in the three test groups were demineralized. The Ca/P ratio and the average microhardness were significantly lower than those of the control group immediately after the teeth were soaked (P<0.05). The Ca/P ratio and microhardness gradually increased after 7 d. No significant difference was observed between the control group and the test groups after 14 d (P>0.05). Conclusion  Bleaching agents caused transient demineralization of human enamel, but these agents could induce re-mineralization and repair of enamel over time. Demineralization caused by bleaching covered a relatively normal range compared with acidic drinks and daily drinking.

    Ectopic recurrence of ameloblastoma in the bucca region of the mandible: a case report
    Wu Pingfan, Zhang Qiang, Tan Weibing, Chen Linlin.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  533-535.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.022
    Abstract ( 2554 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (5388KB) ( 1196 )   Save
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    The postoperative recurrence of ameloblastoma is common. However, ectopic recurrence in clinical operations is rare. A case of ectopic recurrence of ameloblastoma in the bucca region of the mandible after 15 years is presented in this paper. The causes of the ectopic recurrence were analyzed based on relevant literature.

    Bilateral mandibular fourth molars: a case report
    Wang Xiao, Pan Xiangyong.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  536-537.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.023
    Abstract ( 1037 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (2609KB) ( 869 )   Save
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    The occurrence of supernumerary teeth is a relatively rare dental dysplasia. Permanent fourth molars are seldom observed in humans. A case of bilateral mandibular fourth molar is reported in this paper.

    Application of EpiData software in the epidemiological survey of oral health
    Cheng Ruibo, Ma Li, Zhang Ying.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  538-540.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.024
    Abstract ( 1115 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (2381KB) ( 1135 )   Save
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    EpiData is a free software designed for data inputting and management in epidemiological surveys. This soft-ware can enhance the accuracy of data input, reduce the error in inputting data, increase work efficiency, and optimize data management. The methods of establishing, inputting, and exporting data in the EpiData database for oral epidemiological investigations are introduced by providing examples in the present study.

    Indexes used to evaluate the disease activity of Sjögrens syndrome
    Wang Zhijun, Yu Chuangqi, Zheng Lingyan.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  541-544.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.025
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    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands. A set of indexes have been established to evaluate the disease activity in SS, including symptoms, systemic characteristics, and long-term disease damage as well as the patients’ quality of life. This article briefly introduced the background, content, and scoring rules of SS indexes. Current clinical applications and prospects were also reviewed.

    The role and practice of excellent teachers in the process of stomatology innovative talent cultivation
    Liu Qian, Tang Jie, Tan Jing, Ye Ling, Zhou Xuedong.
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2013, 31(5):  545-548.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2013.05.026
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    To discuss the special role of excellent teachers based on the characters of stomatology and the special require-ments of personal training, and to describe the role of excellent teachers in the process of West China Stomatology School’s innovative talent cultivation from discussing major teaching problems, building excellent teaching team and tutorial system, etc.