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Table of Content
01 December 2016, Volume 34 Issue 6
  • Color selection of ultrathin veneers in clinic
    Sun Feng
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  549-555.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.001
    Abstract ( 1161 )   HTML ( 38 )   PDF(pc) (2766KB) ( 1001 )   Save
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    Ultrathin veneer is a new therapeutic technology developed from minimally invasive theories. Ultrathin veneer alters the unwanted shape and color of a tooth through minimal or lack of preparation. The color of tooth after restoration is mixed with the natural color of tooth, the original color of veneer, and the color of bonding material because of ultrathin (approximately 0.2 mm) veneer. Thus, the color is affected by numerous variations. Full considerations are required for creating designs. The author summarizes clinical points and provides suggestions for ultrathin veneer in color.
    Dental alveolar bone and dental arch remodeling in children: orthodontic diagnosis and treatments based on individual child arch development
    Li Xiaobing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  556-563.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.002
    Abstract ( 1402 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF(pc) (2937KB) ( 1387 )   Save
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    The etiology of malocclusions basically involves both congenital and environmental factors. Malocclusion is the result of the abnormal development of the orofacial complex (including tooth, dental alveolar bone, upper and lower jaws). Early orthodontic interceptive treatments involve the elimination of all congenital and environmental factors that contribute to the malformation of the orofacial complex, as well as interrupt the deviated development of the orofacial complex and the occlusion. Early orthodontic interceptive treatments mainly aim to use children’s growth potential to correct abnormal developments of occlusions and orthodontically treat malocclusions more efficiently. The early orthodontic interceptive treatments include correcting the child’s bad oral habits, training the abnormal functioned para-oral muscles, maintaining the normal eruptions of succeeding permanent teeth, applying interceptive treatments to the mal-developed teeth, and employing functional orthopedic treatments for abnormal growths of the upper and lower jaws. In orthodontics, correcting mal-positioned teeth is called orthodontic treatment, while rectifying the abnormal relationships of the upper and lower jaws is called functional orthopedic treatment. However, no clear definition is available as regards to the early orthodontic interceptive treatment of malocclusions caused by the deviated development of the dental alveolar bone. This new theory of “early dental alveolar bone and dental arch remodeling technique” was proposed by Professor Li Xiaobing of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology through his clinical analyses and investigation of his early orthodontic interceptive treatments. He defined the early orthodontic corrections of abnormal growth of dental alveolar bone as “remodel”. The “early dental alveolar bone and dental arch remodeling theory and technique” is proved useful in malocclusion diagnosis and treatment planning during early orthodontic interceptive treatment with malformed dental arch. With the development of the theory and technique, the author intended to prevent and intercept the malocclusion development more effectively and efficiently. This review presents the development and clinical usages of the theory which to provide a new vision in the analysis of malocclusions on the basis of the developmental mechanism of the alveolar bone and dental arch. With clinical case illustration, the author demonstrateshis successful orthodontic clinical practices with this theory, which may contribute to the development of contemporary orthodontic theories and techniques.
    Ex vivo assessment of the potency of optical coherence tomography for the detection of early occlusal caries
    Dai Xiaohua,Yao Hui, Lian Xiaoli, Li Yanni, Wang Yingying, Liu Xiaobin, Xing Lu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  564-569.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.003
    Abstract ( 726 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF(pc) (1772KB) ( 579 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the potency of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect earlyocclusal caries compared with clinical visual examination. Methods Approximately 97 sites of occlusal fissures on 77 extractedaccessional human teeth were scored by three examiners using conventional visual examination and OCT. Results of histologicalexamination on these sites obtained by polarimicroscope served as a gold standard to analyze the sensitivity (SE), specificity(SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results of the area under receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) by visual examination and OCT were also analyzed. The Spearman’s rank correlationcoefficient with histology and the inter-examiner reliability were compared. Results For sites of enamel demineralizationlimited to the outer 1/2 of the enamel layer, the detection rate of OCT (14/25) was obviously higher than that of the clinicaland visual examination (3/25). SE, SP, PPV and NPV of OCT during diagnosis of the early occlusal caries (0.83, 0.64, 0.87and 0.57) were higher than that of the visual examination (0.79, 0.60, 0.85 and 0.50). AUC (95%CI) of OCT and the visualexamination were 0.737 (0.569-0.822) and 0.696 (0.614-0.859), respectively. No statistically significant difference was observedbetween the results. Results of OCT correlated well with histology (r=0.559, P<0.05). The inter-examiner reliability of OCTwas medium. Conclusion OCT can accurately detect early occlusal lesions atraumatically with high sensitivity and effectiveness.OCT exhibits the potential of auxiliary clinical diagnosis enhancing detection rate and finally implementing early diagnosis and early intervention of early occlusal lesions inclinical practice.
    Biomineralization of electrospun polycaprolactone-guided bone regeneration membrane
    Deng Xia, Bai Shi
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  570-574.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.004
    Abstract ( 876 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (2271KB) ( 793 )   Save
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    Objective To evaluate the biomineralization of the tissue-engineering electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold and its potential use for guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes. Methods PCL ultrafinefiber scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and then immersed in supersaturated calcification solution (SCS) for biomineralization investigation. The electrospun PCL scaffolds and the calcium phosphate coating were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Water-contact angles were also measured to evaluate the hydrophilicity of the modified surface. The biocompatibility of the composite was investigated by culturing osteoblasts on the scaffolds. Cell behavior was observed by SEM. Results The electrospun PCL scaffold was composed of ultrafine fibers and well-interconnected pores. The deposits on the fibers grew in number and size as the biomineralization time increased. Then, the covering of the whole PCL film was identified as dicalcium phosphate dehydrate and apatite. Good cell attachment and proliferation behavior were observed on the membranes. Conclusion The quick apatite formation on the surface of the PCL electrospun scaffold indicated that SCS biomineralization may be an effective approach for obtaining PCL/calcium phosphate composites. The cellular biocompatibility of the composite scaffold was preliminarily confirmed by the in vitro culture of osteoblasts on the scaffold. As such, the composite scaffold is a promising biomimetic extracellular matrix biomaterial for bone tissue engineering and GBR membranes.
    Comparative evaluation of the marginal accuracy of single crowns fabricated computer using aided design/computer aided manufacturing methods, self-curing resin and Luxatemp
    Yuan Jianming, Tang Ying, Pan Feng, Xu Weixing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  575-578.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.005
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1693KB) ( 497 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to compare the marginal accuracy of single crowns fabricated using self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methods in clinical application. Methods A total of 30 working dies, which were obtained from 30 clinical teeth prepared with full crown as standard, were created and made into 30 self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM single crowns. The restorations were seated on the working dies, and stereomicroscope was used to observe and measure the thickness of reference points. One-way analysis of variance, which was performed using SPSS 19.0 software package, compared the marginal gap widths of self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM provisional crowns. Results The mean marginal gap widths of the fabricated self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM were (179.06±33.24), (88.83±9.56), and (43.61±7.27) μm, respectively. A significant difference was observed among the three provisional crowns (P<0.05). Conclusion The marginal gap width of CAD/CAM provisional crown was lower than that of the self-curing resin and Luxatemp. Thus, the CAD/CAM provisional crown offers a better remediation effect in clinical application.
    Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the root surfaces and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans
    Li Yuanhong, Li Zhongcheng,Luo Mengqi, Shen Daonan, Zhang Shu, Meng Shu
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  579-583.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.006
    Abstract ( 656 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF(pc) (1637KB) ( 374 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with different powers of Nd: YAG laser irradiationon root surfaces and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion. Methods Extracted teeth because of severe periodontaldisease were divided into the following four groups: control group, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3. Afterscaling and root planning, laser group 1, laser group 2, and laser group 3 were separately treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation(4/6/8 W, 60 s); however, the control group did not receive the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used todetermine the morphology. S. mutans were cultured with root slices from each group. Colony forming unit per mL (CFU·mL-1)was used to count and compare the amounts of bacteria adhesion among groups. SEM was used to observe the difference ofbacteria adhesion to root surfaces between control group (scaling) and laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s), thereby indicating the differentbacteria adhesions because of different treatments. Results Morphology alterations indicated that root surfaces in controlgroup contain obvious smear layer, debris, and biofilm; whereas the root surfaces in laser group contain more cracks withless smear layer and debris. The bacteria counting indicated that S. mutans adhesion to laser group was weaker than that ofcontrol group (P<0.05). No statistical significance among the laser groups (P>0.05) was observed. Morphology alterationsalso verified that S. mutans adhesion to laser group 2 (6 W, 60 s) was weaker than that of control group (scaling). ConclusionThis study demonstrated that Nd: YAG laser irradiation treatment after scaling can reduce smear layer, debris, and biofilmon the root surfaces as compared with conventional scaling. The laser treatment reduces the adhesion of S. mutans as well.However, Nd: YAG laser irradiation can cause cracks on the root surfaces. In this experiment, the optimum laser power of 6 W thoroughly remove the smear layer and debris, as wellas relatively improve the control of thermal damagee.
    Protective effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide against oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts
    Guo Junfeng, Zhang Huiyu, Zhang Gang, An Yang, Yang Yang, Wang Fei, Tan Yinghui
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  584-588.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.007
    Abstract ( 628 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1199KB) ( 314 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to observe the protective effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), as well as its potential mechanism, against oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Methods 1) MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations (10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, and 10-5 mol·L-1) for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h to build an oxidative damage model, to determine cell proliferation activity in each group by using CCK-8 assay, and to determine the optimal modeling concentration. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were pretreated for 1 h with different CGRP concentrations (10-6, 10-7, 10-8, 10-9, and 10-10 mol·L-1) followed by treatment with H2O2 (10-4 mol·L-1). After 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, the CGRP expression and activity of osteoblasts were detected using the CCK-8 method to determine the optimal CGRP concentration that provides the best protective effect against oxidative damage. 2) Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 of the groups treated with CGRP, H2O2, CGRP+H2O2 were determined. Results 1) Compared with the control group, treatment with 10-4 mol·L-1 H2O2 significantly started to inhibite the proliferation of osteoblasts (P<0.01) in a dose-and timedependent manner. Compared with 10-4 mol·L-1 H2O2 group, pretreatment with 10-8 mol·L-1 CGRP significantly increased the proliferation of osteoblasts (P<0.01). 2) Compared with H2O2 group, CGRP+H2O2 group significantly increased the SOD activity (P<0.01), ROS content significantly decreased (P<0.01), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 secretion significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion H2O2 can cause oxidative damage to MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, whereas CGRP exerts protective effect against oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.
    Meta-analysis of the condylar position changes produced by functional appliances in class Ⅱ malocclusion
    HuangXinqi, Cen Xiao, Liu Jun
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  589-593.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.008
    Abstract ( 1320 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1540KB) ( 659 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to analyze the condylar position changes produced by functional appliances inclass Ⅱ malocclusion by systematic review. Methods Electronic search was conducted using Chinese Biomedical LiteratureDatabase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies on condylar position changes produced by functionalappliances in class Ⅱ malocclusion were included. Risk of bias assessment and data extraction of included studies were conductedby two reviewers independently. The meta-analysis was carried out using Revman 5.1. Results Six studies wereincluded (five high quality and one low quality). The condylar position showed no changes after Herbst treatment. The condylarposterior space after Twin-block treatment averagely increased by 0.31 mm (P<0.000 01), whereas the condylar anteriorspace averagely reduced by 0.32 mm (P<0.000 01). Conclusion Twin-block appliance enables forward movement of thecondylar position. This result contributes to the correction of class Ⅱ malocclusion.
    Phonological characteristics and rehabilitation training of abnormal velar in children with functional articulationdisorders
    Xu Lina, Li Feng, Zhang Yanyun, Gao Nan, Hu Mingfang
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  594-599.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.009
    Abstract ( 956 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF(pc) (1639KB) ( 630 )   Save
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    Objective To explore the phonological characteristics and rehabilitation training of abnormal velar in patientswith functional articulation disorders (FAD). Methods Eighty-seven patients with FAD were observed of the phonologicalcharacteristics of velar. Seventy-two patients with abnormal velar accepted speech training. The correlation and simple linearregression analysis were carried out on abnormal velar articulation and age. Results The articulation disorder of /g/ mainlyshowed replacement by /d/, /b/ or omission. /k/ mainly showed replacement by /d/, /t/, /g/, /p/, /b/. /h/ mainly showed replacementby /g/, /f/, /p/, /b/ or omission. The common erroneous articulation forms of /g/, /k/, /h/ were fronting of tongue andreplacement by bilabial consonants. When velar combined with vowels contained /a/ and /e/, the main error was fronting oftongue. When velar combined with vowels contained /u/, the errors trended to be replacement by bilabial consonants. After3 to 10 times of speech training, the number of erroneous words decreased to (6.24±2.61) from (40.28±6.08) before the speechtraining was established, the difference was statistically significant (Z=-7.379, P=0.000). The number of erroneous wordswas negatively correlated with age (r=-0.691, P=0.000). The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that the determinationcoefficient was 0.472. Conclusion The articulation disorder of velar mainly shows replacement, varies with the vowels. The targeted rehabilitation training hereby establishedis significantly effective. Age plays an important rolein the outcome of velar.
    Clinical comparative study on the efficacy of periodontal endodontic therapy and periodontal treatment alone for advanced periodontitis
    Tan Baochun, Xiao Jianping, Yan Fuhua, Huan Hong
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  600-605.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.010
    Abstract ( 1139 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF(pc) (948KB) ( 777 )   Save
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    Objective This study aimed to explore the period of endodontic treatment and the effects of periodontal-endodontic treatment for advanced periodontitis. Methods A total of 180 patients with advanced periodontitis participated in this clinical multicenter study. The respondents were randomly divided into an endodontic combined treatment (experimental) group and a periodontal treatment alone (control) group; each group consisted of 90 teeth. The control group received periodontal therapy only. The experimental group received periodontal therapy and root-canal treatment, and then pulp status was recorded. The cases were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Results Out of 90 teeth in the test group, 22 teeth had completely necrotic pulps, 45 teeth had partial necrosis (coronal pulp necrosis or root pulp necrosis), and 23 had vital pulp. Differences between clinical parameters in the control and experimental groups were not significant (P>0.05) before treatment but were significant after three months (P<0.05). Conclusion Pulp treatment for teeth with advanced periodontitis and dull pulp vitality can control the development of inflammation and thus benefit the healing of periodontal tissue.
    Inclination of crown and tooth longitudinal axis in cephalometric analysis of normal occlusions
    Liu Xu, Ren Jing, Yang Xianrui, Wang Li
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  606-610.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.011
    Abstract ( 1453 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF(pc) (1648KB) ( 1029 )   Save
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    Objective We measured and analyzed the angle between the longitudinal axis of incisor crown and tooth to provide a reference for orthodontists for selecting orthodontic methods and evaluating treatment results. Methods A total of 120 participants were included according to the criteria of Andrews’ six keys, and cephalometric radiograph under the instructions of modified natural head position acquirement method was performed. The angles of maxillary incisor crown longitudinal axis, tooth longitudinal axis, occlusion plane (OP), and true vertical (TV) plane were measured, as well as mandibular incisors. Results As for maxillary incisors, the angle between crown longitudinal axis and TV plane, OP, and tooth longitudinal axis were 11.72°±4.71°, 73.29°±5.69°, and 20.04°±3.71°, respectively. For mandibular incisors, the angle between crown longitudinal axis and TV plane, OP, and tooth longitudinal axis were 16.03°±5.40°, 81.76°±4.81°, and 14.82°±4.01°, respectively. For the maxillary incisor, the angles between crown longitudinal axis and tooth longitudinal axis were mainly within 15° to 25°, whereas those for mandibular incisors were within 10° to 20°. Conclusion The longitudinal axis inclinations of the maxillary and mandibular incisor crown and of the incisor tooth need to be considered when cephalometric radiographs are used for treatment planning or for evaluating the treatment result.
    The influence of angulation of maxillary anterior teeth on treatment design of dental implants
    Liu Jin, Pu Bishuang, Xia Yulan, Wang Chengze, Wang Gang, Lan Jing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  611-616.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.012
    Abstract ( 1399 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (2746KB) ( 774 )   Save
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    Objective This study aims to analyze the angulation of the maxillary anterior teeth relative to the alveolus to provide reference data for clinicians on the best conditions for implant placement in the esthetic zone. Methods Numerous cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed and screened. A total of 150 maxillary images were selected by strict adherence to the defined inclusive criteria, with 75 images each from male and female patients (between the ages of 19 and 48 years at the time of CBCT scan). The maxillary anterior teeth were gathered into the following three groups for males and females: upper canines, upper lateral incisors, and upper central incisors. Then, the long axis of each qualified tooth and its corresponding alveolar process were drawn, and the angles formed by these structures were measured. The resultant data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results The long axis of the maxillary anterior teeth all inclined to the palatal side of the alveolar process. The internal angle (α) formed by the long axis of the maxillary central incisors and the long axis of the alveolar bone presented a mean value of 16.22° (range:2.50°-28.80°) for male subjects and 15.20° (range:2.20°-27.20°) for female subjects. The internal angle (α) of the maxillary lateral incisors exhibited a mean value of 17.50° (range:3.80°-29.50°) for male subjects and 15.99° (range:4.10°-33.30°) for female subjects. Finally, the internal angle (α) of the maxillary canines presented a mean value of 16.27° (range:1.00°-31.50°) for male subjects and 15.01° (range:3.50°-27.40°) for female subjects. Conclusion The long axis of the maxillary anterior teeth all inclined to the palatal side of the alveolar process. For implant placement, careful preoperative analysis and evaluation with CBCT may be beneficial for avoiding the risk factors and achieving a high probability of success in the esthetic region.
    Application of gastric tube interposition by touching laryngeal prominence in postoperative oral cancer patients
    GuoHuan, Bi Xiaoqin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  617-619.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.013
    Abstract ( 540 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF(pc) (1287KB) ( 351 )   Save
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    Objective This study explores the application of gastric tube interposition by touching laryngeal prominencein postoperative oral cancer patients. Methods This trial includes 66 patients treated in the West China Hospital of Stomatologyfrom August 2014 to December 2014. These patients were randomly divided into two groups: the test group included33 patients who underwent gastric tube interposition by touching laryngeal prominence; the 33 other patients, who served ascontrol group, underwent regular gastric tube interposition. The two groups were compared in terms of the occurrence rate ofbucking, success rate of one-time gastric tube placement, and interposition time. Results Compared with those in the controlgroup, the occurrence rate of bucking and the interposition time in the test group decreased while the success rate of one-timegastric tube placement increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Gastric tube interposition by touching laryngeal prominence canimprove the success rate of one-time gastric tube interposition; moreover, it can reduce the average interposition time andthe pain experienced by patients.
    Effects of RhoA silencing on proliferation of tongue squamous cancer cells
    Yan Guoxin, Fan Bing, Zou Ronghai, Zhang Jian, Sun Xiaofeng, Tong Lei, Wang Qimin, Han Jinhong, Lu Xufei, Wang Ying, Zhou Yuan, He Zongxuan, Liao Yixiang, Li Ning, Cao Lei, Chen Zhenggang,
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  620-625.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.014
    Abstract ( 529 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF(pc) (1201KB) ( 411 )   Save
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    Objective This study investigated the effect of RhoA silencing through RNA interference on proliferation and growth of tongue cancer cells, as well as explored the possible mechanisms of this effect. Methods SSC-4 tongue cancer cells were cultured in vitro and then transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down RhoA expression. The tested cells were divided into three groups: experimental group (experimental group 1: transfected with RhoA-siRNA-1; experimental group 2: transfected with RhoA-siRNA-2), negative control group (transfected by random sequence NC-siRNA), and blank control group (transfected with Lipofectamine). The expression levels of RhoA mRNA were respectively measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay. Moreover, the expression levels of cyclin D1, p21, and p27 and RhoA protein were evaluated by Western blot assay. Proliferation and growth potentiality were analyzed through evaluation of doubling times and methyl thiazolyl tetra-zolium assessment. Results The expression levels of RhoA gene and protein of experimental groups significantly decreased following siRNA transfection compared with those in the negative and blank control groups. The expression of cyclin D1 decreased significantly and that of p21 and p27 increased significantly. The doubling time was extended and the growth potentiality decreased. Conclusion The results indicated that RhoA silencing can inhibit proliferation of tongue cancer cells, whereas RhoA affects cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle pathway. Thus, RhoA is a potential target in gene therapy for tongue cancer.
    Exploratory study on influence of biopsy to biological behavior of Tca8113 transplanted tumor
    Liu Jiyuan, Pan Jian, Hua Chengge, Wu Yunlong, Luo Zhengwen, Tang Xiufa
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  626-631.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.015
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    Objective We established an animal model of nude mice with Tca8113 tumor and cut some tissue for biopsy. We also determined the biological behavior and mechanisms of the tumor. Methods The mice were divided into two groups randomly. Mice in both groups were injected with Tca8113 cells into their tongues. The survival condition, growth of primary focus, and metastasis were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry were performed on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), and Ki67 to determine their distributions within the tumor. Cytokeratin staining was also performed to detect micrometastasis in the submandibular lymph nodes. Results The emerging rate of tumor was 97.92%. The weight and survival time of the experimental group were lower than that of the control group, whereas the metastasis ratio was higher. The expression of NF-κB, MMP-9, SDF-1, and MMP-9 in tumors was higher in the experimental group than that in the control group. The expression of NF-κB, MMP-9, VEGF, and SDF-1 was relevant. The microvessel density of the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. Conclusion Biopsy can affect the biological behavior of tongue tumor and can promote growth of primary focus and metastasis.
    Changes in ultrastructure and bone morphogenetic protein expression in reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage under continuous mandibular advancement in adult rats
    Yang Shuai, Li Xue, Gao Jie, Cai Yizhi, Li Ronghui, Wang Mingguo
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  632-638.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.016
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    Objective This study investigated the reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage and the ultrastructural variations in mandibular condylar cartilage in adult rats as a result of mandibular advancement. Methods Thirty 9-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Rats in the experimental group were subjected to mandibular advancement. Rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 30. Sections were cut from condyles, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in condylar cartilage was examined through immunohistochemical analysis. Condylar cartilage samples were harvested, and ultrastructural changes in these samples were observed under Micro-CT and transmission electron microscope. Results Compared with the control group, the experimental group obviously displayed cartilage hyperplasia in the middle and rear of the condyle. Moreover, the number of BMP-2-positive cells in condylar cartilage and the gray value gradually increased in the experimental group on day 7 of the intervention. Ultrastructural changes, such as karyopyknosis, reduced microfilaments around the nucleus, reduction in size or even disappearance of lipid droplets, swelling of endoplasmic reticulum compartments, broadened and increased extracellular matrix, were observed in the condylar hypertrophic chondrocytes. Micro-CT revealed that the trabecula and the newly formed bone gradually thickened. Conclusion Hypertrophic remodeling of the condylar cartilage and high BMP-2 expression are observed in adult rats as a result of continuous mandibular advancement.
    Research progress of mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling pathway in condylar cartilage growth andremodeling
    Xu Gaoli, Wu Lili, Wu Zhiwu, Gu Zhiyuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  639-642.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.017
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    The condylar cartilage was adapted to hypoxic conditions in vivo. However, condylar cartilage cells exposedin normoxia in vitro affect the chondrocyte phenotype and cartilage matrix formation. This condition also resulted in greatdifficulty in chondrocyte research. Culturing chondrocyte should be simulated in in vivo hypoxia environment as much aspossible. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) demonstrates an important transcription factor of adaptive response tohypoxic conditions. HIF-1α also plays an active role in maintaining homeostasis and function of chondrocytes. This reviewsummarized current knowledge of the HIF-1α structure, signaling pathway, and mechanism of HIF-1α in the condylar cartilagerepair.
    Development of transcriptional regulators of Streptococcus mutans in cariogenic virulence
    Li Lan, Zhang Bowen, LiJiyao
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  643-646.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.018
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    Some transcriptional regulators contribute to the expression of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) cariogenicvirulence factors. Although the target sequence transcriptional regulators anchored on the cell wall and the molecular mechanismof the regulation of S. mutans are yet to be clarified, certain global regulators potentially associated with the cariogenicityof S. mutans have been identified. This review is about these related transcriptional regulators, their function, and possiblemechanisms.
    Application of saliva in disease diagnosis
    Cheng Xingqun, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  647-653.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.019
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    Saliva is secreted by salivary glands and performs a variety of functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial activity, and digestion. With the rapid progress in salivaomics, saliva became recognized as a potential pool of biological markers. Being a non-invasive and safe source, saliva is a potential substitute for blood in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancement in saliva-related studies and presents the potential value of saliva in early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, cancer, diabetes, and other systemic disorders. Saliva biomarkers can reveal changes ranging from changes in biochemical index, DNA, RNA, and proteins to the diversification of microbiota structure. By integrating recent data, this paper discusses the clinical significance and application prospect of saliva in early diagnosis of diseases and in translational and precision medicine.
    Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible: a case report
    Zhou Ying, Zhang Zhihui, Sun Xiaojuan
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  654-656.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.020
    Abstract ( 1260 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF(pc) (1775KB) ( 695 )   Save
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    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign bone tumor. This tumor mostly affects the long bones of the appendicular skeleton but rarely grows in the craniofacial region. In this article, a case of CMF of the mandible was presented to enhance our understanding of CMF. Its clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, and treatment methods were discussed by analyzing the related literature.
    Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia
    Li Hongyan, Xu Jian, Zhang Baorong, Jia Yue, Liu Minhua, Luo Yilang, Zhao Jing
    West China Journal of Stomatology. 2016, 34(6):  657-658.  doi:10.7518/hxkq.2016.06.021
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    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been widely used in clinical practice as one of the most efficient root canal irrigants. Its properties include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and ability to dissolve necrotic tissues. However, when used improperly, NaClO can cause a series of adverse reactions, such as mucosal inflammation, irritation, or injury. This paper presents a case of accidental injection of NaClO in inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia.